Young Engineer’s Own Book by Stephen Roper  1884, 1890
Young Engineer’s Own Book by Stephen Roper  1884, 1890
Young Engineer’s Own Book by Stephen Roper  1884, 1890
Young Engineer’s Own Book by Stephen Roper  1884, 1890
Young Engineer’s Own Book by Stephen Roper  1884, 1890
Young Engineer’s Own Book by Stephen Roper  1884, 1890
Young Engineer’s Own Book by Stephen Roper  1884, 1890
Young Engineer’s Own Book by Stephen Roper  1884, 1890
Young Engineer’s Own Book by Stephen Roper  1884, 1890
Young Engineer’s Own Book by Stephen Roper  1884, 1890
Young Engineer’s Own Book by Stephen Roper  1884, 1890
Young Engineer’s Own Book by Stephen Roper  1884, 1890

Young Engineer’s Own Book by Stephen Roper 1884, 1890

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Young Engineer’s Own Book by Stephen Roper 1884, 1890
 
Young Engineers Own Book by Stephen Roper
365 pages + 72 pages
Copyright 1884, 1890 printing date    closing flap is damage

Containing an explanation of the principle and theories of whic the steam engine as a prime mover is based with a description of different kinds of steam engines, condensing and non condensing marine stationary, locomotive, fire, traction, and portable; together with...
106 illustrations

CONTENTS
THE STEAM-ENGINE 27
STEAM-ENGINES  31
HORSE-POWER OF STEAM-ENGINES   37
Table showing the Factor of Horse-Power for Different
Piston Speeds, Pressures, and Diameter of Cylinders 44
ECONOMY AND WASTE IN THE STEAM-ENGINE  49
DIFFERENCE BETWEEN CONDENSING AND NON-CONDENSING ENGINES   54
DESIGN OF STEAM-ENGINES     56
PORTABLE AND SEMI- STEAM-ENGINES    58
SMALL STEAM-ENGINES   60
TRACTION STEAM-ENGINES  62
PROPORTIONS OF STEAM-ENGINES    65
FLY-WHEELS  68
THE STEAM-PISTON   70
THE STEAM-ENGINE CYLINDER  74
Table showing the Proper Thickness of Steam-Cylinders of Steam-Engines of different Diameters, including the necessary Allowance for Re-boring    76
BED-PLATES AND HOUSINGS  76
THE CRANK  79
THE ECCENTRIC  83
THE LINK  85
CONNECTING-ROD BOXES   86
HOW STEAM-ENGINES ARE MADE 89
MATERIALS EMPLOYED IN THE MANUFACTURE OF STEAM-ENGINES   91
HOW TO LOCATE AN ENGINE  92
CARE OF THE STEAM-ENGINE.  94
How TO CLEAN A STEAM-ENGINE 95
How TO SET UP AN ENGINE  98
How TO SET OUT THE PISTON-PACKING IN THE CYLINDER   99
PISTON- AND VALVE-ROD PACKING   101
LET THE STEAM-ENGINE ALONE  104
How TO TREAT THE ENGINE  105
MAN'S INHUMANITY TO THE MACHINE   106
TECHNICAL TERMS APPLIED TO DIFFERENT PARTS OF STEAM-ENGINES WHICH DESIGNATE THE MEMBERS OF THE HUMAN BODY   110
TECHNICAL TERMS APPLIED TO DIFFERENT PARTS OF STEAM-ENGINES AND BOILERS WHICH DESIGNATE  GARMENTS   113
KNOCKING IN STEAM-ENGINES   114
WHAT SHOULD THE YOUNG ENGINEER BE?  115
WHAT SHOULD THE YOUNG ENGINEER KNOW ?   117
THE YOUNG ENGINEER SHOULD PRACTISE ECONOMY 119
WHAT TOOLS SHOULD THE YOUNG ENGINEER HAVE? 121
CONVERSATION BETWEEN THE YOUNG ENGINEER AND HIS EMPLOYER 124
THE STEAM-ENGINE INDICATOR     126
How TO ADJUST THE INDICATOR    129
THE PANTOGRAPH) OR LAZY TONGS ... 131
THE PLANIMETER .... 131
THE VACUUM-ITS EFFECT' ON THE WORKING OF
THE STEAM-ENGINE AND AS A CONDITION OF ECONOMY   133
Table showing the Vacuum in Inches of Mercury and Pounds Pressure per Square Inch taken from above Atmosphere 136
VOCABULARY OF NATURAL AND MECHANICAL PROCESS 138
THE SLIDE-VALVE    142
TECHNICAL TERMS APPLIED TO THE WORKING OF STEAM IN THE CYLINDERS OF A STEAM-ENGINE 145
HOW TO SET A SLIDE-VALVE  146
LAP ON THE SLIDE-VALVE 147
Table showing the Amount of Lap required for Stationary and Locomotive Slide-Valve Engines  148
LEAD ON THE SLIDE-VALVE 149
THE STEAM-ENGINE GOVERNOR  150
THE BROWN REVOLUTION INDICATOR    153
REVOLUTION AND STROKE  154
Table showing the Number of Strokes or Revolutions required for a Given Piston Speed    156
THE STEAM-WHISTLE157
THE STEAM-GAUGE159
ATTACHMENTS, TOOLS, AND FITTINGS USED IN CONNECTION WITH STEAM-ENGINES AND BOILERS . 163
THE SCREW-PROPELLER AND PADDLE-WHEEL    165
AIR  168
Table showing the Expansion of Air by Heat and the Increase in Bulk in Proportion to Increase of Temperature 173
Table showing the Weight and Composition of Saturated Air    174
AIR-PUMPS  175
AIR-VESSELS 177
WATER    179
Table showing the Boiling-points of Liquids under Pressure of One Atmosphere  182
Table showing the Boiling-point for Fresh Water at different Altitudes above Sea-level    182
Table showing the Weight of Water in Pipe of various Diameters One Foot in Length 183
Rules for Calculating the Quantity of Water required for different Specific Purposes  184
Table showing the Average Number of Gallons of Water used per capita for Culinary, Manufacturing, and Sanitary Purposes, and Fountains, in the Principal Cities of this Country and Europe187
Table showing the Capacity of Cisterns and Tanks computed in Barrels of Thirty-one and one-half Gallons 188
Table showing the Capacity of Tanks of given Diameters and given Depths in Gallons  189, 190
HEAT   191
Table showing the Temperature of Fire, and the Appearance of different Fuels at different Degrees Fah., and that it is nearly the same for all kinds of Combustibles under like Conditions   195
Table showing the Fusing Temperature of different Substances in Degrees Fah 195
Table showing the Relative Value of different Non-conductors   195
Table showing the Melting-points of different Solids and of Alloys  196
COMBUSTION 197
Table showing the Temperature at which different Substances become Combustible and Ignite without the Intervention of a Spark of either Electricity or Fire   201
Table showing Combustible Matter in different Substances, the Quantity of Air required to Support Combustion, the Theoretic Value, and Highest Attainable Value of each under Ordinary Conditions  202
Table showing the Theoretic Value of different kinds of American Coal in Heat Units, Pounds of Water Evaporated, and Percentage of Waste 203
Table showing the Combustible and Non-combustible in the best Quality of American Anthracite Coals . 204
Table showing the Constituents of Cumberland Coals (American) 204
Table showing the Composition of best Pennsylvania Anthracite Coal 204
Table showing the Basis of Virginia Caking Coal . 204
Table showing the Combustible Value of Ohio'Coals . 204  
Table deduced from an Analysis of Indiana Coals . 205
Table showing the Ingredients in Newcastle Coal (English)  205
Table showing the Heating Power of Coke as Fuel  205
Table showing the Chemical Equivalents of Wood  205
Table showing the Vegetable Composition of Peat   205
Table showing the Carbon, Volatile, Sulphur, etc., in Pittsburgh Coal205
Table showing the Value of Lignite as Fuel.. 206
Table showing the Composition of Combustibles in Coal, Coke. Wood, and Peat, etc 206
Table showing the Value of Fluid Fuels ... 206
FUEL- 207
WOOD  210
Table showing the Comparative Value of different kinds of Wood as Fuel  210
STEAM  211
ECONOMY OF WORKING. STEAM EXPANSIVELY   215
Rule for finding the Amount of Benefit to be derived from Working Steam Expansively  218
Table of Hyperbolic Logarithms to be used in Connection with .the above Rule  219
Table showing the Average Pressure of Steam in the Cylinder for the Whole Stroke when Cut-off at any given Point   220
Rule for finding the Average Pressure in Steam-Cylinders  221
Table of Multipliers by which to find the Average
Pressure of Steam in the Cylinders of Steam-Engines, for any Point of Cut-off   221
PROPERTIES OF SATURATED STEAM 222
CALORIC   223
THE ROOT SECTIONAL STEAM-BOILER    225
STEAM-BOILERS   226
STEAM-BOILER PERFORMANCES    233
CHIMNEYS   235
How STEAM-BOILERS ARE MADE238
Table of Diameters, Circumferences, and Areas of Circles from 1/16 of an Inch to 25 Inches 297-299:
STANDARD UNITS ADOPTED IN THIS COUNTRY AND ENGLAND  300
Table showing the Specific Gravity of different Substances per Cubic Foot 301-305
Table showing the Specific Gravity and Weights of various Substances  306
LOGARITHMS  306
Table of Logarithms of Numbers from 0 to 60 . 307, 308  
Table of Co-efficients of Friction . . . . 309, 310
Table of Fractional Parts of an lnch expressed Decimally  311
Table of Standards of English and United States Linear, Square, Cubic, Solid, and Liquid Measures312
Table of Weights and Measures  313, 314
Table showing the Crushing Strength of different Materials, in Pounds per Square Inch  315
Table showing the Modulus of Elasticity of different Materials, in Tons of Two Thousand Pounds each  316
NON-CONDUCTORS FOR PREVENTING RADIATION AND CONDENSATION IN STEAM - CYLINDERS, PIPES,. BOILERS, STEAM-DOMES, ETC    318
Table showing the Loss of Heat by Radiation through Naked or Uncovered Steam-Pipes, also the Economy of Fuel induced by the Use of Non-conductors . 320
Table showing the Value of different Substances as Non-conductors  321
THE INJECTOR 322
Table showing the Maximum Capacity of Sellers' Self-Adjusting Injectors, Steam Pressure in Pounds per  Square Inch, etc. . . . . . . . 326
INSTRUCTIONS FOR SETTING UP INJECTORS., 328
PUMPS 329
Table of Proportions of the Dayton Cam Pump .. 334
DIRECTIONS FOR SETTING UP STEAM-PUMPS 335
Table showing the Diameter of the Steam- and Water-Cylinders, Length of Stroke, Strokes per Minute, Capacity, Size of Steam-, Exhaust-, Suction-, and Dis charge-Pipes of the "Dean Steam-Pump"   337
BELTING  339
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.
Front View of the Green Automatic Cut-of Engine Frontispiece
The Otto Gas-engine . xxi
Back View of the Green. Automatic Cut-off Engine xxii
William Sellers & Co.'s Binder-frame . xxvi
The Crist Vibrating Engine 30
Front View of the Twiss Automatic Cut-off Engine  34
Hoven Owens & Richter's Corliss Engine  36
The Armington & Sims' Engine  40
Front View of the Blymyer Horizontal Stationary Engine .. 45
Back View of the Blymyer Horizontal Stationary Engine 50
The Diamond Baxter Engine55
The Greenfield Yacht-engine 57
The Buckeye Automatic Cut-off Engine  59
Payne & Son's Vertical Engines and Boilers 66
The Blymyer Portable Engine  61
The Lane & Bodey Traction  or Self-propelling Steam-engine  68
The Whitehill Automatic Cut-off Engine 65
The Ball Steam-engine 71
The Steam-engine Cylinder    74
Kriebel Vibrating Valveless Engine   75
The Twiss Yacht-engine 77
Single Crank and Eccentric  79
Double Crank 80
Disc Crank 81
Crank at Whole Stroke 82
Crank at Half Stroke  82
Crank Travelling Inboard, or Under    82
Crank Moving Outboard, or Over   82
The Eccentric   83
Kriebel's Vibratory Cylinder Valveless Yacht-engine 87
The Stearn's Engine  93
The Sombert Engine  96
Kartzenstein's Piston-rod Packing 101
The Straight-line Steam-engine  103
The Taylor Vertical Engine    109
Railroad Train Crossing the Susquehanna Bridge  122
Thompson's Steam-engine Indicator  126
The Pantograph, or Lazy Tongs  131
The Planimeter    132
The Ocean Steamer 133
The Westinghouse Engine   137
The Slide-valve 142
Lap on the Slide-valve     147
Lead on the Slide-valve 149
The Gardner Steam-engine Governor. 150
The Pickering Steam-engine Governor. 151
The Speed-revolution Indicator . . . . . 153
The Steam-whistle   157
The Steam Pressure-gauge . . . . .   159
Sectional View of the Steam Pressure-gauge   161
Sectional View of the Steam-gauge   161
The Vacuum-gauge . ..... . 162
Screw Stop-valve  163
Check-valve   163
Stop-valve, Check-valve, and Goose-neck .   163
Stop-valve, with Tap, Union, and Pet-cock   163
Bib-cock   163
Drip-cock   163
Gauge-cock  163
Flat Spanner 163
Round Spanner  163
Monkey-wrench   163
Double-end Fork-wrench  164
Yoke-wrench with Slot   164
Single Fork-wrench   164
Union, or Cup and Ball joint  164
Tap-bolt  164
Set Screw 164
Hexagon Nut164
Long Tap-bolt 164
Stud-bolt164
Lock-nut, with Lever    164
Tee  164
Elbow, with Nipple   164
Return Bend  164
Follower   164
Plug   164
Reducer  164
Bushing  164
Ferrule .   164
Union   164
The Four-bladed Screw-propeller   165
The Turner Condenser and Air-pump   175
Air-vessel  178
Waterfall   179
Combustion    197
The Root Sectional Steam-boiler   225
The Harrison Sectional Steam-boiler   228
The McKee & Rankin Flue-boiler   232
Chimney   235
Stearn's Tubular Fire-box Boiler 237
Murrill & Kyser's Automatic Steam-damper   264
The Cooper Tubular Steam-boiler, with Dome, Safety-valve, etc. 267
The Adams Grate-bar. 272
The "Common Sense" Steam-boiler  273
INTRODUCTION.
THE object of the author, in the preparation of  this book, is to fill a void which has existed in the literature of the Steam-Engine since its advent. No writer has heretofore written a work on this subject which is adapted to the wants of the youth who manifests inclinations for steam-engineering. Nearly all the text-books in institutions where boys are trained Tor the different mechanical pursuits, consist of old philosophical treatises, which contain brief paragraphs on air, heat, steam, etc., and are illustrated with such crude arrangements as Watt's, Newcumet's, and Rudolph's engines. This is altogether wrong, as no book is too good for a boy who shows an aptness or fondness for the study of any particular mechanical subject. He should be given to understand that, though the Steam-Engine is based on theories of heat, combustion, air, water, steam, etc., these theories are as immutable as the ground on which we tread, the firmament above us, or the ocean which stretches out before us.
The young engineer should be instructed how to locate, set up, adjust, and put together all the numerous parts which go to make up the great prime mover of man-the Steam-Engine. If it be admitted it is absolutely necessary for a man to devote years to the acquirement of knowledge, for the purpose of qualifying himself for the duties of. any special calling, and if the Steam-Engine is the most important invention that ever originated in the mind of man, and has, further, engrossed more thought, more mechanical genius, and more devotion from the scientist and the mechanic, than any other mechanical idea, then why should we not train out" boys to appreciate it, care for it, and Manage it, instead of allowing them to become imbued with the erroneous idea that it may, at no very far distant day, be superseded by another motor? For, according to the natural order of things, such a change can never be realized ; because there are certain conditions connected with the Steam-Engine, and its employment as a motor, which must always place it ahead of any other prime mover.
For this reason we ought to continue to improve it in design, workmanship, proportions, material, and fine finish ; this last is the most gratifying of ideas to the thoughtful mind, lending additional attractions to the natural and trained mechanic, the theorist, as well as the practical, intelligent engineer.
S. R.
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