Steamboat Days by Fred Erving Dayton  1925   Hard Cover
Steamboat Days by Fred Erving Dayton  1925   Hard Cover
Steamboat Days by Fred Erving Dayton  1925   Hard Cover
Steamboat Days by Fred Erving Dayton  1925   Hard Cover
Steamboat Days by Fred Erving Dayton  1925   Hard Cover
Steamboat Days by Fred Erving Dayton  1925   Hard Cover
Steamboat Days by Fred Erving Dayton  1925   Hard Cover
Steamboat Days by Fred Erving Dayton  1925   Hard Cover
Steamboat Days by Fred Erving Dayton  1925   Hard Cover
Steamboat Days by Fred Erving Dayton  1925   Hard Cover
Steamboat Days by Fred Erving Dayton  1925   Hard Cover
Steamboat Days by Fred Erving Dayton  1925   Hard Cover

Steamboat Days by Fred Erving Dayton 1925 Hard Cover

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Steamboat Days by Fred Erving Dayton 1925 Hard Cover
 
Steamboat Days by Fred Erving Dayton Illustrated by John Wolcott Adams
Hard cover Writing on first page
Copyright 1925 by Fredrick A. Stokes Company
436 pages
CONTENTS
I TWO THOUSAND YEARS OF STEAM 1
II EARLY DEVELOPMENT OF THE STEAMBOAT IN AMERICA8Early Steamboat Progress in England-Robert Fulton-The Stevens Family.
III THE BEGINNING OF STEAMBOAT COMMERCE18Early Long Island Sound Steamers-The End of the Fulton-Livingston Monopoly.
IV HUDSON RIVER STEAMBOATS32Smaller Hudson River Boats of the '30's-The Famous Mary Powell-The Famous Side-wheeler St. John-Organization of the Citizens' Line-Steamboats of Recent Time-Famous Old Steamboats.
V LAKE CHAMPLAIN STEAMBOATS90
VI THE BRIDGEPORT STEAMBOATS 98Day Line Competition.
VII THE OLD NEW HAVEN LINES106
VIII STEAMBOATING ON THE CONNECTICUT RIVER 115The First Commercial Steamboats-Early Up-river Steamboats-Early Hartford-New York Steamboats-When Charles Dickens Rode on the Connecticut-The Shadow of Railroad Competition-Late Up-river Steam-boats-The Building of State of New York-Carrying Away the Middletown Bridge-New Owners for the New York Line-The Railroad Absorbs Boat Lines-The Oldest Living Long Island Sound Pilot.
IX NORWICH AND NEW LONDON STEAMBOATS159Mystic's Busy Shipyards-Burning of City of New London-The Freight Boats-The Excursion Fleet-Old-time Steamboat Gentry.
X STEAMBOATING ON PROVIDENCE RIVER AND NARRAGANSETT BAY176Beginning of the Fall River Line-Jim Fisk's Introduction to Daniel Drew-Sale of the Fall River Line-Fall River Line Again Acquired-Competition Among the Liners-Another Promise of Competition-The Providence Excursion Fleet-Providence River and Narragansett Bay Steamboats-Between Fall River and Providence-Paw-tucket River Boats-Bristol Steamboats-Fall River Excursion Boats-Deep Water Liners gunning froth Providence
XI BLOCK ISLAND STEAMBOATS 234
XII STEAMBOATS OF NANTUCKET SOUND237
XIII MASSACHUSETTS STEAMBOATS 247North Shore Routes-Merrimack River Transportation -Steamboats of the South Shore-Coastwise Runs from Boston.
XIV DOWN EAST STEAMBOATS 258Steamboats of Penobscot Bay-Steamboats of the Kennebec Route-Steamboat Lines from Portland-Wreck of the Portland-C. W. Morse Merges the Eastern Lines-Portland and New York Steamboats-Other Steamboat Routes in Maine-Boston, Maine and Canada Routes-The Yarmouth Line-Halifax Steamer Connections.
XV STEAMBOATS OF THE DELAWARE RIVER  288Cape May Steamboats-Lower River Routes.
XVI BALTIMORE STEAMBOATS  302The Old Bay Line-Two New Ships of the Old Bay Line-The Ericsson Line-The Chesapeake Line-Mer-chants' and Miners'-Deal with the New Haven Railroad -Dividend Record-The Tolchester Excursion Boats.
XVII WESTERN RIVER STEAMBOATS .. 331Western Emigration Movement-Early Steamboat Freight Charges-Early Steamboat Accidents on Western Rivers-Increased River Tonnage-Running Time on the Mississippi-Race Between Robert E. Lee and Natchez-Missouri River Steamboating-Steamboating on the Upper Mississippi-Fate of the First Mississippi Bridge.
XVIII WHEN AMERICA LED IN OCEAN STEAM . . . 360
XIX NEW YORK'S EARLY DOMINATION OF THE SHIP AND ENGINE BUILDING FIELD376The Novelty Works-Phoenix Foundry-Morgan Iron Works-John Roach's Etna Iron Works-West Point Foundry-The Ship Builders of New York-William H. Webb-Jacob A. Westervelt-Other Early Shipbuilders-The Famous Collyer Family.
XX Great Eastern ARRIVES IN NEW YORK398
XXI STEAMBOATS OF THE GREAT LAKES 402
XXII ATLANTIC COAST LINES412 The Early Coastwise Lines - The Savannah Line
XXIII COMMUTING STEAMBOATS OF NEW YORK HARBOR 425 The Harlem Steamboats - The Starin Steamboats
ILLUSTRATIONS
Clermont, the first commercial steamboat (in colors)Frontispiece
Clermont, the creation of Robert Fulton33
Paragon, second of Fulton boats with paddle wheels encased35
Safety barges were popular with timid passengers who feared boiler explosions39
North America was a notable steamboat of the twenties with two walking beam engines40
Albany, a Hudson River day liner of the twenties42
Albany had seven lines of prosperous steamboats before the railroad came46
Uncle Daniel Drew, an early steamboat magnate50
Knickerbocker, which helped to create Daniel Drew's fortune55
New World, the largest steamboat of its day, arriving in Albany59
Diamond, of the Troy Line61(Uncompleted picture by John Wolcott Adams)
Mary Powell, as she originally appeared69
Dean Richmond inherited the engine of Francis Skiddy74
Kaaterskill, of the Catskill Evening Line, built in 188279
The famous old Norwich which towed on the Hudson River for eighty years85
Riverside, an old-time chain ferry on Rondout Creek88
An early steamboat announcement92
Congress, the fourth steamboat on Lake Champlain94
Ansonia, one of the oldest steamboats, several times rebuilt and still in service100
Steamboats burned wood and their fires lighted the heavens at night109
Outside staterooms were always preferred112
Oliver Ellsworth, named for the Chief Justice, approaching Hartford121
Commodore Cornelius Vanderbilt, with his Cleopatra in the background130
"The steamboat bar was forward-so were most of the men passengers" 134
Cleopatra, one of Commodore Vanderbilt's fighting steamboats on the Connecticut River136
Brother Jonathan journeyed to New York by Granite State143
Granite State coming to dock at Hartford on the Connecticut River152
Coming into dock in the rain157
General Jackson, with cross-head engine, an early steamboat of the Norwich Line161
Commonwealth was the great steamboat of Long Island Sound in the fifties164
Steamboats shared the trade with the smart packet sloops177
Boston travelers dined well at Wrentham179
Bay State, an early day steamboat of Narragansett Bay182
Massachusetts, a notable steamboat which began the Fall River Line185
An earlier Rhode Island with cross-head engine186
The magnificent four-piper Newport, of the Fall River Line199
Railroads superseded stage coaches in bringing travelers to the boats200
Travel was the grand adventure of the roaring forties205
The great Rhode Island, of the Providence-New York Line 207
Massachusetts, a favorite Providence steamboat of the eighties 209
Pilgrim, the first American steamboat to have a double hull212
Priscilla, of the Fall River Line under Brooklyn Bridge214
Roger Williams, rigged for sea voyage to South America as El Paraguay220
Boatmen shed tears when City of Newport went to the wreckers225
Eagle was the first steamboat to serve Nantucket, in 1818238
Massachusetts, towing a ship over Nantucket bar in a "camel" or floating dock240
Scurrying into clothes before the steamboat arrives242
Old paddlers maintained a blockade of the South in the Civil War244
When grandsires and steamboats were young248
A night boat letting go the stern line250
Chancellor Livingston, last of the Fulton boats, which finished its days in Maine waters261
Boston, built for the rough waters of the Maine coast265
Daniel Webster became Expounder when impressed for the Civil War267
Sagadahoc, ex Star of the East and later Greenport272
Brilliant sunlight of early morning shines on the after deck279
A Concord coach comes clanking down the road to the dock house290
John Stevens, a fast link in New York-Philadelphia travel294
The noise of paddles rose above the beat of rain storms300
Steamboats were celebrated for the art of their chefs304
Florida, of the Chesapeake Bay fleet, of a past era306
Steamboats were linked with southern railroads in the fifties308
The wealth and fashion of the times delighted in steamboat travel313
Benjamin Deford, first of the Merchants' and Miners' fleet357
"The steamboats were finer than anything on shore"340
Republic, one of the grand packets, had a river view painted on the paddle boxes 344
Memphis at the levee in the days of Mississippi steamboat glory348
The gambling gentry added color to the Mississippi River packets350
Robert E. Lee, which triumphed over Natchez in a long match race on the Mississippi353
City of Cairo, of the famous Anchor Line, on the Mississippi355
Washington and Herman were the first steamships in New York-Havre service 363
Vanderbilt, which the Commodore gave to the Nation in the Civil War 365
Pacific, a Collins liner, lost at sea366
Adriatic, largest of the famous Collins liners369
The Pennsylvania Railroad lent its credit to build four ocean liners373
Yangtse, built at the foot of East 42nd Street, New York, for China trade381
Fusiyama, building at Shanghai, China396 (Uncompleted picture by John Wolcott Adams)
Early steamboats carried hard rudders and were difficult to steer403
The early railroads were conceived as feeders for steamboat lines407
Chicago, a Great Lakes steamer of the early fifties408
Huron, a present-day Caribbean Coaster417
Porto Rico, which serves that island419
Chattanooga, newest of the Savannah Line fleet422
New York from the Brooklyn shore in the days of boilers on the guards426
The commuting steamboats running to Harlem landed at Sylvan Grove 428
Smoking was never permitted on the after deck and isn't now430
Steamboats, when their favor waned, were cut down for towboats434
INTRODUCTION
STEAMBOATS, when they had been established to be reliable carriers, became America's grand passion and steamboat days marked the passing of isolation and the beginning of travel in America. To be quickly and cheaply transported was an obsession when the country was young, for it meant adventure with much of the old hardship left out. Problems of building and operation were solved quickly and speed was the spirit of America. Fulton's first steamboat made five miles an hour. Ten years later Stevens' steamers were hitting fifteen miles, and in 1846 Commodore Cornelius Vanderbilt raced Traveller against "Live Oak" George Law's Oregon to a dead heat, 20 miles in 57 minutes.
Shallow waters were deepened and made navigable at private expense. Steamboats grew in size and in such numbers that 800,000 tons were added in a single year. Journeys which had required weeks to make were accomplished by steamboats in as many days. Pioneer wildernesses blossomed cities and towns almost over night. Mechanics were created by thousands, and dreamers of yesterday were conservative steamboat executives the day following.
A struggle to monopolize steamboats was bitterly fought. Laws had not been written, or, if on the statute books, had not been tried and tested ; the constitution had not been interpreted, and the monopoly grants threatened to disrupt the young country, for the States were at grips with each other over steamboats.
These legal contentions developed into commercial warfare, bitterness, hatred and unfair competitive battle unknown before and not tolerated since. Passengers were kidnaped by rival lines and steamboats fouled each other in premeditated collisions, while they omitted advertised stops in the race to beat competitors and proclaimed superior speed which they did not possess.
From the fights emerged Vanderbilt, Drew, Isaac Newton, Chapin, Borden, Memnemon Sanford, Whildin, Aspinwall and Charles Morgan among other early leaders who became great transportation executives and capitalists; and ruin consumed scores of others who tried and failed.
As if attempting to repair the damage occasioned by their monopolistic introduction, steamboats knitted and solidified the eastern States into a strong and enduring republican government and on the western rivers and lakes steamboats carried thousands of pioneer home-seekers across and beyond the old boundaries, and "without steamboats the West might never have been the West."
When New England coast towns were burned by the British in the War of 1812, and their people settled anew on western land grants, the shipbuilders among them continued in the one trade they knew. Pittsburgh became a shipbuilding port with anchor forges, block factories, rope walks and shipbuilding yards, not alone for river boats which later came in such numbers, but sea-going ships. Pittsburgh and Marietta built full-rigged ships that sailed over the world.
For twenty-five years steamboats alone provided transportation and later when they divided the business with railroads, the steamboats' share was largest and of primary importance, for the railroads were, at first, but feeders and extensions of steamboat routes. Credit is commonly given to railroads for the expansion of America, but it was the pioneer steamboats out of Pittsburgh that opened the Ohio and Mississippi valleys, and steamboats on the coast, rivers, canals and lakes facilitated the great movement of passengers and freight.
The early thought devoted to transportation did not contemplate competition between steamboats and railroads. Commonly the two systems had the same ownership, and steamboat owners promoted connecting rail lines, replacing stage coaches, and often with steamboat capital.
The imagination of early steamboat builders was limitless. Their ability to put their plans into effect was marvelous considering every step taken was new. Modern ocean liners only measure up to early conceptions. Coast and inland steamboats of to-day are no larger or finer than New World of 1848 and present-day steamboats are not faster. Except in her power equipment Great Eastern anticipated present design by half a century.
Steamboat days were romantic and travel was adventure. Transportation was a highly competitive business and men struggled to win and maintain place. This hectic competition was a glorious game which helped to advance travel. New lands were conquered and great cities built where steamboats reached, and the nation halted in its pursuit of agriculture to enter upon the mechanics and engineering of steamboating.
When the high seas came to be crossed by steam vessels American steamships led in speed, numbers, comforts and cargo capacity. The largest and most satisfying ocean liners were American built and owned. English travelers preferred them. This leadership was lost to America following the Civil War. The railroads gradually took an increasing share of business, and monopolized capital available for transportation expansion. The railroads recruited their forces, too, largely from the steamboat world.
America did not lose her leadership in the change from sail to steam. She began to build iron ships as soon as any country. The Civil War gave impetus to iron shipbuilding. The Government had brought the art to such place that iron vessels could be built in America, so far as everything except raw materials was concerned, as cheaply as Europe could build them.
Nor was it the differential bounty of forty-four cents a ton granted to early American ships that made them prosperous, for this bounty only matched the bounties of other shipping nations.
Congress refused to permit three-quarters of a million tons of American steam and sail ships, which had gone under foreign flags for protection during the Civil War, to return to American registry, and so kept in the service of competitive nations a vast amount of American owned tonnage and capital.
While competitive nations were aiding their ocean shipping by direct methods of subventions and mail contracts and by indirect methods of relief, the United States Government refused assistance, and imposed new burdens upon shipping beyond those of other industries, which increased the cost of operating American ships.
America lost its leadership in steam. The Navy and the river, lake and coast steamboats kept shipbuilding alive and America showed ability to come back in the World War. The American flag will continue to fly from a representative merchant fleet upon the seven seas because a united country has determined to keep it there.


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