Steam It’s Generation and Use 1923 36th Edition Second Printing HC Missing 8 pgs

Steam It’s Generation and Use 1923 36th Edition Second Printing HC Missing 8 pgs

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Steam It’s Generation and Use 1923 36th Edition Second Printing HC Missing 8 pgs
 
Steam Its Generation and Use 1923 36th Edition Second Printing HC
Hard Cover (Cloth Board)
Published by Babcock & Wilcox
Copyright 1923
36th Edition Second Printing
383 Pages
PAGES 13-16, 25-28 ARE MISSING
WHILE the time of man's first knowledge and use of the expansive force of the vapor of water is unknown, records show that such knowledge existed earlier than 15o B. C. In a treatise of about that time entitled "Pneumatica," Hero, of Alexandria, described not only, existing devices of his predeand contemporaries, but also an invention of his own which utilized the expanforce of steam for raising water above its natural level. He clearly describes three methods in which steam might be used directly as a source of power: raising water by its elasticity, elevating a weight by its expansive power, and producing a rotary motion by its reaction on the atmosphere. The third method, which is known as " Hero's engine," is described as a hollow sphere supported over a caldron or boiler by two trunnions, one of which was hollow and connected the interior of the sphere with the steam space of the caldron. Two pipes, open at the ends and bent at right angles, were inserted at opposite poles of the sphere, forming a connection between the caldron and the atmosphere. Heat being applied to the caldron, the steam generated passed through the hollow trunnion to the sphere and thence into the atmosphere through the two pipes. By the reaction incidental to its escape through these pipes, the sphere was caused to rotate and here is the primitive steam reaction turbine.
Hero makes no suggestions as to application of any of the devices he describes to a useful purpose. From the time of Hero until the late Sixteenth and early SevenCenturies, there is no record of progress, though evidence is found that such devices as were described by Hero were sometimes used for trivial purposes, the blowing of an organ or the turning of a spit.
Matthesius, a German author, in 1571 ; Besson, a philosopher and mathematician at Orleans; Ramelli, in 1588; Battista Della Porta, a Neapolitan mathematician and philosopher, in 1691 ; De Caus, a French engineer and architect, in 1615; and Branca, an Italian architect, in 1629, all published treatises bearing on the subject of the generation of steam.
To the next contributor, Edward Somerset, second Marquis of Worcester, is apparently due the credit of proposing, if not of making, the first useful steam engine. In the " Century of the Names and Scantlings of Inventions by Me Already Practised," published in London in 1663, he describes devices showing that he had in mind the raising of water not only by forcing it from two receivers by direct steam pressure, but also for some sort of reciprocating piston actuating one end of a lever, the other operating a pump. His descriptions are rather obscure and no drawings are extant, so that it is difficult to say whether there were any distinctly novel features to his devices aside from the double action. While there is no direct authentic record that any of the devices he described were actually constructed, it is claimed by many that he really built and operated a steam engine containing pistons.
In 1675, Sir Samuel Morland was decorated by King Charles II for a demonof " a certain powerful machine to raise water." Though there appears to he no record of the design of this machine, a mathematical dictionary, published in 1822, credits Morland with the first account of a steam engine, on which subject he wrote a treatise that is still preserved in the British Museum.

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