Severn & Wye Railway Forest Of Dean Volume 1 by Pope How & Karau w/ Dust Jacket
Severn & Wye Railway Forest Of Dean Volume 1 by Pope How & Karau w/ Dust Jacket
Severn & Wye Railway Forest Of Dean Volume 1 by Pope How & Karau w/ Dust Jacket
Severn & Wye Railway Forest Of Dean Volume 1 by Pope How & Karau w/ Dust Jacket
Severn & Wye Railway Forest Of Dean Volume 1 by Pope How & Karau w/ Dust Jacket
Severn & Wye Railway Forest Of Dean Volume 1 by Pope How & Karau w/ Dust Jacket
Severn & Wye Railway Forest Of Dean Volume 1 by Pope How & Karau w/ Dust Jacket
Severn & Wye Railway Forest Of Dean Volume 1 by Pope How & Karau w/ Dust Jacket
Severn & Wye Railway Forest Of Dean Volume 1 by Pope How & Karau w/ Dust Jacket
Severn & Wye Railway Forest Of Dean Volume 1 by Pope How & Karau w/ Dust Jacket

Severn & Wye Railway Forest Of Dean Volume 1 by Pope How & Karau w/ Dust Jacket

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Severn & Wye Railway Forest Of Dean Volume 1 by Pope How & Karau w/ Dust Jacket
 
Severn & Wye Railway - Forest Of Dean Volume 1
By Ian Pope, Bob How & Paul Karau
Hardbound With Dustjacket 158 Pages
Copyright 1983


CONTENTS
Introduction
Chapter One
TRAMROAD DAYS ..3
Chapter Two
THE SEVERN & WYE ON EDGE RAIL - 1868-945
Chapter Three
THE JOINT COMMITTEE - 1894-1923 ..19
Chapter Four
AFTER THE GROUPING - 1923-4725
Chapter Five
ALONG THE LINE
Lydney Junction31
Lydney Town73
Tufts Junction94
Whitecroft115
Parkend125
Architectural drawings154
Acknowledgements158

INTRODUCTION
THE Forest of Dean lies in the County of Gloucestershire between the Rivers Severn and Wye. The size of its area has varied much over the centuries but it was based on the Hundred of Saint Briavels. In ancient days it was a wild and impenetrable area settled by a tribe of Britons known as the Silures who may have worked the mineral wealth under the Forest. Certainly the iron-ore was being worked by the Romans who eventually settled the Forest. From the time of the Domesday Book the area was a royal hunting ground and came to belong to the Crown, as it does to this day.
Geologically the Forest is a basin of carboniferous rocks containing both iron-bearing rocks around the edge and coal measures in the centre. The basin has a length of approximately twelve miles and a width of about eight.
The right of working the minerals and stone within the Forest has been for centuries past, and still is, vested in all male persons of the age of 21 years who have worked for a year and a day in a coal or iron mine and who were born within the boundaries of the Hundred of Saint Briavels. Upon proof of these requirements he may be registered as a 'Free Miner' by the Gaveller who is the representative of the Crown within the Forest. The Forest itself was originally administered by the Surveyor General of Woods and Forests, and after 1810 by the Commissioners of Woods, Forests and Land Revenues of the Crown, until the formation of the Forestry Commission in 1919. All land taken for industrial purposes was leased from the Crown on 'licences'.
The mineral deposits within the Forest are divided into tracts called 'gales'. The areas, and owners, of these were defined in a survey following the 1838 Dean Forest Mines Act conducted by Thomas Sopwith, John Probyn and John Buddle which led to the 1841 award of coal and iron mines. Prior to this, minerals had been worked in a haphazard manner and many disputes arose between adjoining miners. There are, however, several areas called 'exempted lands', as they are under private ownership, such as the Lydney Park Estate of the Bathurst family. A gale can only be granted to a Free Miner who then pays an annual rent, 'dead rent', and a royalty on tonnage raised, to the Crown. When a Free Miner is granted a gale he is called the `galee'. He can then either work the minerals himself or sell, transfer, assign or dispose of the gale to others, but any such sale or assignment must be recorded by the Gaveller. These arrangements enabled individuals other than Free Miners to acquire mining rights, thereby allowing companies with capital from outside the Forest to exploit a gale.
A gale may comprise one or more seams of coal and two or more gales may lie vertically over one another but belong to different galees. The lower seams of coal were known as the 'deep gales' and, until the start of the 20th century, were little exploited due to the depth at which the coal lay beneath the surface and the small size of the area covered by the gale. In 1904, to overcome this problem, a further Dean Forest Mines Act was passed empowering the Gaveller to amalgamate certain gales to form a larger area and therefore make the working of the deep gales an economic proposition.
The coal measures within the Forest basin can be divided into three main groups according to depth. The uppermost group is the Supra-Pennant, followed by the Pennant, whilst the deepest measures are the Trenchard group which contains the most valuable coal seam within the coalfield - the Coleford High Delf. It was this seam which required the 1904 amalgamation in order for it to be worked profitably. The total thickness of coal measures is about 2,300 feet, comprising 22 seams with a total thickness of 35 feet of coal. In practice twelve of these seams have sufficient thickness of coal to be workable.

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