Road Master’s Assistant and Section Master’s Guide by William S Huntington
Road Master’s Assistant and Section Master’s Guide by William S Huntington
Road Master’s Assistant and Section Master’s Guide by William S Huntington
Road Master’s Assistant and Section Master’s Guide by William S Huntington
Road Master’s Assistant and Section Master’s Guide by William S Huntington
Road Master’s Assistant and Section Master’s Guide by William S Huntington
Road Master’s Assistant and Section Master’s Guide by William S Huntington
Road Master’s Assistant and Section Master’s Guide by William S Huntington
Road Master’s Assistant and Section Master’s Guide by William S Huntington
Road Master’s Assistant and Section Master’s Guide by William S Huntington
Road Master’s Assistant and Section Master’s Guide by William S Huntington
Road Master’s Assistant and Section Master’s Guide by William S Huntington

Road Master’s Assistant and Section Master’s Guide by William S Huntington

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Road Master’s Assistant and Section Master’s Guide by William S Huntington
 
Road Masters Assistant and Section Masters Guide by William S Huntington
Hard Cover  Title page is loose, staining, missing part of the binding edge, corners bumped and missing some of the covering
286 pages
Copyright 1881 Sixth edition
A manual of reference for all having to do with the permanent way of American Railroads, containing the best results of experiences and minute directions for track laying, ballasting, and keeping the track in good repair
CONTENTS
CHAPTER I. TRACK-LAYING.
Careless Work-Usual Defects and their Consequences-Choice of Cross-Ties; Should be of Uniform Size-How to Lay Them, and How Not to Lay Them-Side Ties-" Sighting in Ties" -Measuring off for Joint-Ties-Laying Ties on Bridges, etc.-The use of Shims-Selection of Ties for Joints-Preparation of Road-Bed-Instructions for Track-laying-Use of Compass, Level, and Square-Gang for Laying Track at the Rate of Half a Mile a Day-Tools for such a Gang
CHAPTER II. LAYING THE RAILS.
Damages by Rough Handling-Curving Iron-Cocked Joints, and How- to Remedy Them-Expansion of Iron-Usual Provision against it-Caution Necessary in Replacing Repaired RailsHoop-iron Shims-Suspension-Joints-Creeping Track-Number and Tons of Rails per Mile,  18
CHAPTER III. ABOUT SPIKES.
Wasteful Handling-Driving Spikes-How they are Spoiled-The Right Method-The Gauge : Its Misuse-Oscillation of Railroad Cars : Bad Spiking One Cause-Other Causes-Spiking on Bridges-Waste of Rail-Plates,   26
CHAPTER IV. CATTLE-GUARDS, CULVERTS, AND TURN-OUTS.
Cattle-Guards often Mere Traps-Their Proper Construction-Laying Iron over Cattle-Guards, Culverts, and Road-CrossingsLaying Turn-Outs-Locating Frogs-Tables for Putting in Frogs and Switches-Curving Iron Guard-Rails-Measuring Distances by the Hammer-Adjustment of Guard-Rails-TieRods -A Few Words on Home and Foreign Roads, . . . 34
CHAPTER V. ON BALLASTING TRACK.
Best Ballast-Dumping Gravel : It should never be done till Road-Bed is Ready-Boulders, Roots, etc., should not be carted with Gravel-Raising Track-Tamping-Dressing-off Track-What to do when Material is Scarce-Sags,   44
CHAPTER VI. ELEVATION OF CURVES.
Subject of Elevation of the Outer Rail little understood-Important to determine the Rate of Speed for which the Elevation should be calculated-No Invariable Rule can be Adopted-Degree of Curves,   54
CHAPTER VII. TRACK REPAIRS.
Methods Unchanged for a Quarter of a Century-Routine Ideas-Cheap Section-Masters not desirable-Work on a New Road Joint-Ties-Lining Track : in Frosty Localities-Clearing out Ditches and Culverts : their proper Dimensions-Kinks in Rails -Importance of True Gauge-Trestle work and Bridges should be Planked for Foot Passengers,  60
CHAPTER VIII. DRAWING SPIKES-SHIMMING.
Waste in Spike-drawing-Claw-Bars-The Bull's-Foot-Spikedrawing in Winter-Loss by Carelessness-Shimming : its advantages-Often Badly Done-Shims often ill-made and of Bad Material-Consequences-Shimming in Frosty Weather-How to Manage It-Tamping-Thick Shims should be Spiked to Ties-Machine-made Shims-Shimming under Ties, or upon Culverts, Trestle-Work, etc, -What comes of Shims Working Out-Planks at Road-Crossings-Wood-Piles, 71
CHAPTER IX. FROGS AND SWITCHES.
Selection of Frogs and Switches-Crossing-Frogs-Bent SwitchRods-The Throw of Switches-Connecting-Rods-Frogs : Cast-steel Plate and Rail Frogs-Fastening Guard-Rails-Short Guard-Rails-Useless Tinkering  8i
CHAPTER X. PATTERNS OF RAILS-JOINTS.
Diagrams of Rails most in Use-Mode of Building a Pile for Rolling Rail-Weight of Rails to be in Proportion to Tonnage Joints-Engravings of Joint-Fastenings-Nut-Locks, . . 91
CHAPTER XI. RENEWING TIES-SHIFTING IRON.
The Work not so Simple as it Looks-Needs to be done Intelligently-Difference of Ties-How Track is Affected by Changing Ties-Uses for Old Ties-Shifting Iron-When Ends are Broomed-Step-Chairs for Laying Repaired Iron-Adjusting Repaired Rails-Spike-drawing-Preserving the Gauge-Uncurved Iron for Curves, 97
CHAPTER XII. SNOW AND ICE.
Snow-Ploughs Insufficient-Jealousy of Master-Mechanics a Hindrance to their Improvement-Other Reasons-Clearing the Flange-Way-Some Methods of Doing This,  507
CHAPTER XIII. ON FIRE AND WATER AS ENEMIES-ALSO ON PRESERVING FENCES.
Washing Away of Embankments-Instance of Neglect and its' Consequences-Vigilance Needed at the Season of Freshets-Duty of Section-Masters-Power of Water Not Fully Realized by Section-Men-Action of Water in Deep Cuttings-Surface Ditches-Hand-Car Practice-Fires : Burning Waste ; Bridge-Burning and its Causes-Breaks in Fences may be Hidden by Weeds-Falling Trees-Danger of Leaving Fences Broken Tool-Houses,   112
CHAPTER XIV. ON RAILROAD ACCIDENTS.
Preventable and Non-preventable Accidents-Illustrated Newspaper Critics-A Word to Newspaper Men-What Accidents May be Classed as Unavoidable-Collisions : From Breaking of Car-Couplings ; From Misunderstanding by Train-Men ; Between Gravel and Passenger Trains-Cheap and Ignorant Labor -Prompt Use of Lights-Narrative of a Collision-Broken (Usually Cheap) Axles-Cracked Wheels-Broken Rails-Who is Blameworthy-Misplaced Switches-False Econoffiy-The Speed Recorder,   12o
CHAPTER XV. RAILROAD AND HIGHWAY CROSSINGS.
Railroad-Crossings-Abolition of Grade-Crossings advocated-Safety and Economy equally demand it-Estimate of the Cost of Stops to a Main Trunk Line at a Grade-Crossing-Irritating Action of the Great Corporations when Lesser Lines are Projected-Defective Legislation-Outlines of Laws to Check the Evil-Crossings Above or Below proposed-Conditions for Crossing at Grade when Unavoidable-Watchfulness at Highway Crossings especially Enjoined, .134
CHAPTER XVI. A WORD-TO SUPERINTENDENTS AND ROAD-MASTERS.
Inexperienced Superintendents apt to Appoint Inefficient RoadMasters-Road-Masters need a Practical Knowledge of Details in Repairs-Their Duties often too Multifarious-Section-Masters need Minute Instructions-Riding in "Palace Cars"-Road-Masters as Likely to Injure the Road by Zeal for Economy as by Extravagance-The Engineer should Discuss Questions with His Road-Masters, 142
I CHAPTER XVII. ORGANIZATION.
Bankruptcy the Result of a Lack of Fundamental Order-Discharge of the Engineer before the Entire Completion of the Road a Fatal Mistake-Incompetent Superintendents-Harmony be tween the Engineer and Superintendent necessary to the Prosperity of a Road-No " Supervisor" to come between the Chief-Engineer and the Road-Masters-Foremen to Work with their Men-Engineers should Instruct their Assistants, . 149
CHAPTER XVIII. TRACKMEN'S TOOLS.
Variety of Track Tools-Different Weights-Description of Some of the Tools Illustrated-The Cord-Clamp-Track Gauge and Level Combined-Rail-Saw-Track-Jack - List of Tools Required by Track-Gang-Illustrations of Ratchet Screw-Jack, Track-Level, various Hand Tools, Rail-Bender or Jim Crow, Ratchet Wrench and Drill, Joyce's Track-Jack, Lakey's Track Drill,     155
CHAPTER XIX RULES AND TABLES.
Curving Rails with Lever and Curving Hook-Method of Finding approximately the Degree of Curvature required to Reach any Desired Object, Point of Curve being Known-Practical Method of Finding Proportion of Frog-Rules for Placing Frogs in Cross-over Track when the two Tracks are Straight and Parallel -Tables for Elevation of Outer Rail on Curves-Table for Determining Degree of Curvature and Elevation of Outer Rail by Versed Sine of 43-ft. Chords-Bills for Frog and Switch Timbers,    162
APPENDIX I. Rules for the Government of Track and Bridge Repairers, adopted for the Atlantic & Great Western Railroad, including "General Instructions to be followed in the Maintenance of Track " and  " Instructions for Track-laying,"   187
APPENDIX II. Rules and Instructions for the Government of Trackmen on the Louisville & Nashville and South & North Alabama Railroads, with Tables fot Putting in Frogs and Switches, and Bills of Switch Timbers for the 5-ft. Gauge, - . . 207
APPENDIX III. Specifications for a Perfect Sub-Division on the Pennsylvania Railroad,  249
APPENDIX IV. The French Metric System,  254
ILLUSTRATIONS
Steel-rail Frog-Switch-Stand-Semaphore Signal-Steel. rail FrogCrossing-Malleable Iron Head Chair-Sections of Rail and Rail-Joints used on the Atlantic & Great Western, the Pittsburgh, Cincinnati & St. Louis, the Baltimore & Ohio, the Pennsylvania, the Erie, and the Louisville & Nashville Railroads-Ground Switch Lever Stand-Ordinary Fish-Plate-The Fisher Joint-Double Joint, Atlantic & Great Western Railroad-Latimer's Safety-Guard for Trains-Reinforced Joint used on Pennsylvania Railroad-Lindenthal's Suspended Rail-Joint-Cumming's Crossing-Cumming's Frog -Mansfield Elastic Frog-Morden's T-Rail Crossing-Morden's T-Rail Line Frog-Brahn's Main-Line Spring Frog-Brahn's Detachable Steel-rail Frog

Index
Accidents, chapter on, 120. at switches, 130. caused by defective frogs, 4. duty of construction trains as to, 232. duty of road-masters as to, 238. often caused by expansion, 29. reports of, rule as to, 191, 226, 236, 239.
Accounts should be kept under supervision of engineer, 151.
Adzing ties, rule as to, 203.
Atlantic & Great Western R. R., rules for track department, 187. joint used on, 266, 269.
Ballast, carelessness in dumping, 45. measurement of, rule as to, 240. mixed gravel and rock, rule for, 208. on curves, 49. purpose of 208. rock, sizes for, etc., 208. rules for. 199, 207. should be filled in between ties, 50. specifications for, Pennsylvania R. R., 251. various material for, 44.
Baltimore & Ohio R. R., cut of joint and rail section, 268.
Bending rails, 5.
Bills of timber for switches, 182, 185, 243, 247.
Board bills, rule as to, 496.
Brackets for guard-rail, rule as to, 216.
Brahn's main line spring frog, cut of, 275. detachable steel-rail frog, cut of, 275.
Bribes, rule as to, 197.
Bridges, examination of, 117. rules as to, 191. laying cross-ties on, 70.
should have a foot-walk, 70. spiking on, 32.
Brush, cutting, rule as to, 225.
Burnt fences, rule as to, 298.
Cattle-guards, construction of. 34.
Chords, table for determining elevation from, 182.
Cinders, excellence of, for ballast, 45
Claw-bars, proper form of, 72. cut of, 159.
Cleaning frogs and switches, rule as to, 2,6.
Cleanliness, rule as to, 197.
Closures in laying steel, rule as to, 217.
Collisions, 125.
Compass, level, and square, use of, 14.
Conductors of construction trains, rules for, 229.
Coning of wheels, effect on oscillation, 29.
Construction trains, charge of, rule as to, 229, 236, 239.
Cord-clamp, use of, 255. cut of, 299.
Creeping of track, 23.
Crossings, highway, 240. rules as to, 192.
Crossing-plank raised by frost, etc., 79. specifications for, on Pennsylvania R. R., 252.
Crossings, railroad, r34.
Cumming's, cut of, 271. Morden's T-rail, cut of, 274. steel-rail frog, 62.
Crossing-frogs, 85.
Cross-over track, rule for placing frogs for, 272.
Cross-ties, adzing, rule as to, 203. filling in ballast between, 50. for protecting switch-rods, rule as to, 211. laying on bridges, etc., 10. number of, per mile, at various distances, 25. piling of, etc., rules as to, 229, 240. renewing, 97. rules as to, 200. should be assorted, 2. should not vary in thickness, 3. "sighting in," 5, 23. spacing, rule as to, 203. specifications for, etc , 220. tamping with ballast, 47. (See also Joint-ties.)
Crotch-frogs, table for putting in, 243.
Culverts, cattle-guards, etc., 34. ditches, etc.., 65. importance of large dimensions for, 67.
Cultivating right of way, rule as to, 298.
Cumming's crossing, cut of, 271. frog, cut of, 272.
Curves, ballasting on, 49. laying rails on. 18. widening gauge for, rule as to, 214.
Curves, degree of, explanation of meaning, 59. table for determining, 58, 182.
Curves, elevation of, 54. importance of using level for, 55. rule as to, 201, 204.
Curving rails, 18, 104, 162, 163. for turnouts, 40. rule as to, 213.
Cutting brush, etc., rule as to, 198, 225.
Damages to persons, rules as to, 194. to live stock,195. to property, etc , reports of, rule as to, 227.
Danger signals, rules as to, 189, 190.
Degree of curves, explanation of meaning, 59. table for determining, ,82. to reach any point, method for determining, 165.
Discharging men, rules as to, 228. 234, 241.
Discipline, rule as to, 228.
Ditches, culverts, etc . 65. surface, 115.
Ditching, rules for, 199, 207. specifications for, Pennsylvania R. R., 251.
Divisions, length of, for supervisors, 233.
Double joint, A. & G. W. R. R., 269.
Drainage, rules as to, 65.
Dressing off track after ballasting, 48.
Dumping gravel, carelessness in, 45.
Elevating outer rail on curves, rule as to, 201, 215, 250. tables for, 176, 182. in France, 181. point of beginning, rule as to, 215. (See also Curves.)
Employees, discharging, rule as to, 228, 241. giving wood to, rule as to, 231. should be discharged only for cause, 149.
Engineering department, distinction between and trans. dept, 150,
Engineers, mistake of discharging after construction, 147.
Erie Railway, rail and joint section cry, 265.
Expansion of iron, 19. allowance for, rule as to, 213.
Expansion shims, rule as to, 213, 234. cut of, 159. (See also Shims.)
Fences, 118. burnt, rule as to, 198.
Fires along road-bed, 15. damages by, rule as to reports of, 227.
Fisher joint, 269.
Fish-plates, cuts of, 266, 271. maintenance of rule as to, 213. not strong enough for steel rail, 13.
Force account, rule as to, 235.
Foremen, length of section for, 152. rules for, 187, 217. should work with gang, 220.
Fouling switches, rule as to, 201.
Foundations, examining, rules as to, 291.
France, elevation for curves used in, ,81.
French weights and measures, 254.
Freshets, 113, 120.
Frogs, 81. Brahn's, cuts of, 275. cast and rail, comparison of, 40. Cummings, cut of, 272. curving, 85, 76,. Mansfield, cut of, 272. method of measuring proportion of, 171. Morden's T-,rail, cut of, 274. remarks as to setting 37. tables for setting, 48, 39. rule for placing, for cross-over track, 171.
Frogs and switches, bills of timber for, 182-185, maintenance of, rules as to 205, 216. table for putting in, 243.
Frost, effect of, on track, 74.
"Gauge concussion," description of, 30.
Gauge, importance of care as to, 29. widening, on curves, rule as to, 214.
Gauges, tests of, rule as to, 214.
Grade-crossings, 134.
Grass and weeds, cutting, rule as to, 198.
Gravel should be dumped carefully, 45.
Ground switch-lever stand, 267.
Guard-rails, 87. position and length of, 40. brackets for, rule as to, 216.
Guard-timber on bridges, 12.
Handcars. light, economy from, 253. rules as to, 192.
Head-block, placing, rule as to, 216.
Head-chair, malleable iron, 262.
Highway-crossings, 140. rules as to 191.
Huntington track-gauge, remark as to, 15. cut of, 159.
Ice and snow, 107.
Injuries to trackmen, rules as to, 196.
Inspection of track, rules as to, 198, 234. of wood, rule as to, 240.
Inspector's track-gauge and level combined, 259.
Iron, expansion of, 19. shifting, 104. (See also Rails.)
Jim Crow, 156, 160.
Joints, 94. engravings of, 264 to 271. maintenance of, rule as to, 223. remarks on form of, 12. spiking of, 27, 214. engravings of, 264 to 271.
Joint-ties, measuring off for, 8, 13. remarks as to size of, etc., 5. should be tamped last. 62.
Joyce's track-jack, 256, 161.
Keys for switches, rule as to, 235
Kilometre, value of, 255.
Lakey's track-drill, 261.
Latimer's safety-guard for trains, 270.
Laying rails, rule as to, 242. reports of, rule as to, 204. (See also Rails.)
Leases and right of way, special officer for, 151.
Levels for track, 156, 158. importance of use of, 14. use of, on curves, 55. use of, rules as to, 204, 216.
Lever and curving-hook for curving rails, 163.
Light hand-cars, economy from, 253
Light rails, experience as to wear of, 92. section of, 263.
Lining-bar, cut of, 159.
Lining track, 63.
Litre, value of, 254.
Live stock, damages to, 195.
Long ties should be used on bridges, 11.
Loose property, responsibility for, etc., rule as to, 220.
Louisville & Nashville R. R., rail-section on, 264. rules for track-men on, 207.
Lumber, piling of, etc., rule as to, 219.
Malleable iron head-chair, 263.
Mansfield frog, cut of, 272. remarks on, 81, 85.
Material, piling of, etc., rule as to, 219, 240. receiving, rule as to, 240. requisitions for, etc., rule as to, 221. responsibility for, rule as to, 220.
Metric system, tables for, 254.
Middle ordinates, 170. to chords of 5o feet, on various curves, 58.
Morden's Trail crossing, cut of, 273. T-rail line frog, cut of, 274.
Nut-locks, 95.
Obstructions, placing of, etc., rule as to, 219.
Officers of road department, duties and numbers of, 152.
Old rail, disposition of, rule as to, 213.
Old ties, uses for, 100.
Organization, chapter on, 147.
Oscillation of cars due in part to defective gauge, 29.
Pennsylvania R. R., joint on, 271. rail-sections on, 264 and 265. specifications for perfect track, 249.
Piling wood, etc., rules as to, 192.
Pittsburgh, Cincinnati & St. Louis R. R., cut of joint, 267.
Platforms, care of, rule as to, 225.
Plug-chair to prevent creeping, 23.
Plugs for spike-holes, 103. rules as to, 200, 205, 212.
Policing, specifications for Pennsylvania R. R., 251.
Presents, rule as to, 196.
Punching, differences in, rule as to, 207.
Radius of curves of various degrees, table of, 58.
Railroad-crossings, 134.
Rails, creeping of, 23. curving, 18, 104. for turnouts, 40. rule as to, 213. injury to, from running over before ballasting, 49, number of, per mile, of various lengths, 24. patched, directions as to laying, 21. pattern of, 91. pile for rolling, 93.
Rails, repairing, 102. rule for computing tonnage required, 25. sections of, 263 to 268. weight of, per sq. in of section, 25, 266, 268. laying, making points of, rule as to, 205. on cattle-guards, open culverts, etc., 35. rules as to, 202, 204, 212. relaying, 105. replacing, rule as to, 197. shifting, 104. unloading, should be carefully done, 28.
Rail-frogs to be preferred, 81.
Rail-bender, 60.
Rail-plates, on bridges, injury to, from spiking, 32.
Rail-saw, uses of, 102, 256.
Rainfall effect of, 222. 120.
Raising track, 46, 200.
Ratchet screw-jack, 158.
Ratchet wrench and drill, 160.
Reinforced joint, Pennsylvania RR, 271.
Removals, rules as to, 187.
Renewing ties, 97.
Repairs of track, 60.
Reports, rules as to, 226. of new rail laid, rule as to, 242.
Requisitions for material, rule as to, 221, 235.
Responsibility for material, etc., rule as to, 220.
Right of way, care of, rule as to, 225. cultivating, rule as to, 198. specifications for care of, Pennsylvania RR, 258. special officer for, 251.
Road-crossings, 140. laying rails at, 35.
Road-bed, care of, in storms, 214, 120. cross-section of, 299. effect of freshets, etc., 113, 120. preparation of, for ballast, rule for, 208. specifications for Pennsylvania RR, 249. watching, etc., rule as to, 219.
Road master, length of division for, 152. rules as to duties of, 187, 237. various duties of 153.
Road-masters and superintendents, a word to, 242.
Road department, rules for, 282.
Rock-ballast, size for, etc., 208.
Rules and tables, 162.
Rules for track department, 182, 207.
Running off at switches, 130.
Safety-guard for trains, Latimer's, 270.
Scrap, piling of, etc., rule as to, 94, 220.
Section, proper length of, 152.
Section foremen, cutting down wages of, 60. duties of, 62. rules for, 287, 207, 217. should work with their men, 253, 220.
Semaphore signals, 138, 260.
Shanties, rules as to, 195, 198.
Shifting iron, 104.
Shimming, 74. rule as to, 203. should be carried on rail-car, 21. should not be used on bridges, etc., 10.
Shims, expansion, 213. rule as to, 2,3, 234.
Shim-box on rail-car, 21.
Short guard-rails, 89.
Sidings, care of, rule as to, 225. method for determining curve for, to reach a point, 165.
Sight-boards for laying ties, 5, 13.
Signals, rules as to, 188, 190, 226. at crossings, 138. semaphore, cut of, 260.
Smoking on duty, rule as to, 198.
Snow and ice, 107.
Snow-ploughs, ,108.
Spacing ties, rule as to, 203.
Specifications for perfect track, Pennsylvania RR, 249
Speed of trains, effect of, on elevation, 55. reports of, rule as to, 228.
Speed-recorder, 133
Spike-holes, plugs for, 103.
Spike-maul, cut of, 159.
Spiking on bridges and trestles, 32. regulations as to, 205, 214.
Spikes, 71. care and driving of, 26. drawing, to change rails, 103. preservation of, etc., rule as to, 220. wooden, rule as to, 200, 212.
Split switches, rule as to, 197.
Steel rail, laying, rule as to closures. 217. track, reduction of labor from, 152.
Steel-rail frog-crossing, 261.
Step-chairs, rules as to, 204, 216.
Stock, damages to, rule as to reports of, 227.
Storms, care of road-bed in, 114. effect of, on track, 112, 120. work in, rules as to, 290.
Stub-switches, 82.
Sundays, work on, rules as to, 190, 192.
Super-elevation of outer rail, rules as to, 215. tables for, 176, 182. in France, 181 (See also Curves.)
Superintendents, a word to, 142.
Superstructure, specifications for, Pennsylvania RR, 249.
Supervisors of track, rules for, 232.
Surfacing, remarks as to, 52.
Surfacing old track for new iron, rule for, 202.
Surface-ditches, 113.
Suspension joint, remarks as to, 12, 22. (See also Joints.)
Switches, 82. accidents at, 130. bills of timber for, 182, 185, 243, 247- fouling, rule as to, 201. malleable iron head-chair, 262. maintenance of, rule as to, 216. tables for laying out, 38, 39, 243.
Switch-keys, rule as to, 235
Switch-rods, protecting, by ties, 211.
Switch stands, 84, 267 cut of, 259.
Switch timbers, bills of, 243, 247.
Tamping-bar, 259.
Tamping cross-ties when ballasting, 47.
Tamping joint-ties, 62.
Tamping-pick, weight of, etc., 155. cut of, 159.
Target-boards for sighting-in ties, 5, 13.
Telegraph, repairing, rules as to, 195. watching, rule as to, 225.
Tie-rods for switches, remark as to, 41.
Ties, adzing, rule as to, 203. for protecting switch-rods, rule as to, 211. renewing, 97. specification for, etc., 210. uses for old, 100. (See also Cross-ties.)
Time-books, etc., rules as to, 227, 233.
Tongue-switches, table for putting in, 243.
Tool account, rule as to, 236.
Tool-houses, 118
Tools for track-laying gang, list of, required, 16. for road gang, list of, required, 157. for track-men, remarks on, 155, 159.
Track, dressing off, after ballasting, 48. lining of, 63. perfect, specifications for, Pennsylvania RR, 249. raising, for ballast, 46. repairs of, 60. watching, etc., rule as to, 219.
Track department, rules for, 182, 207.
Track-drill, 160, 161.
Track gauges and levels, 156.
Track-gauges, tests of, rule as to, 224.
Track-jack, 156, 161.
Track-laying, 1. instructions for, 202. gang, organization of, 15.
Track-level, 158.
Track-men, rules for, 182, 207.
Track tools, 155, 159.
Track-walking, rule as to, 219.
Track-wrench, cut of, 159.
Trestles, laying cross-ties on, 10. should have a foot-walk, 70. spiking on, 32
Turn-outs, bills of timber for, 182, 185. laying out, 36. tables for laying out, 38, 39.
Tyler switch, 83, 130.
Unloading rails should be carefully done, 18.
Victor track-drill, 161
Watching, rules as to, 217, 219
Weeds, cutting, rules as to, 298, 225.
Weight, French measures of, 258.
Widening gauge on curves, rule as to, 24.
Wood, inspecting, rule as to, 240. piling, etc., rules as to, 192, 219.
Wooden spikes, rule as to, rod, 212.
Wood-piles, tipping over by frost, 80.
Wood-yards, care of, rule as to, 225.
Work on track, rules as to, 183, 189, 207.
PREFACE
To Mr. W. S. Huntington, a practical trackman, and a man of very keen perceptive faculties and sound, decided common sense, is due the credit of first presenting to the railroad fraternity a practical work upon track repairs, of which the present volume is the final outgrowth; and the owners and operators of railroads owe him a debt of gratitude at least for having raised the standard of railroad construction and repairs throughout the country. The invention or initiation of a system is the principal point ; any one may follow him who is the pioneer, but all may not do better or as well. But railroading is a branch of one great work which is developing more rapidly than anything else, and it is almost as hard to keep up with it as to keep pace with the geography of our country and the population of its towns.
I do not pretend to have completely filled the gap where Mr. Huntington left off, but simply, at the solicitation of others, who did me the honor to ask me to revise and add to the work of my fellow-laborer Huntington, I have at leisure hours supplied, as I hope, some of the desiderata.
One of the most important things for me to do was to make the book general-that is, to apply to nearly all of the various gauges of the country. To this end I have prepared tables for the elevation of curves for the four gauges in most common use, also frog and switch tables for the same, with bills of timber, etc., as well as methods for putting in crossings and cross-over tracks. I have given more especial descriptions of the better kinds of switches, switch-stands, and ordinary and crossing frogs. I have selected the best systems of rules for the government of the track department from two roads. One set I prepared myself, with the advice and assistance of all the ability upon the road for which they were intended, and with the original rules as a ground-work. The other set was taken from a road where the able engineer followed the same plan, and selected from my rules as well as others the best he could find, producing a more comprehensive system than my own.
The " specification for a perfect track " of the Pennsylvania Railroad is a valuable guide, and is also given to show the experience and teaching of other earnest and zealous workers in this direction. These three will enable the organizer of any road to select the fittest for his use.
A special chapter is devoted to the subject of elevation on curves -a subject so much neglected, and yet one of the most vital to the safety, economy, and comfort of a road. A very excellent method for curving rails with a track-lever is also given, which I can heartily recommend. A special chapter has also been devoted to the question of the disadvantages of level crossings, which to some, perhaps, may seem irrelevant, but to others differently situated probably less so.
A variety of engravings has been introduced, illustrating the best patterns of rails, joints, frogs, and switches; also the best selections of track-tools, some of which are novel, yet proven. Others, however, of equal, and perhaps in some cases greater, merit have been reluctantly omitted. It is not to be understood that I commend those given as wholly superior to others.
In the preparation of this new edition I have utilized the brains of my friends whose names appear, and of some that do not appear, whose reward, like my own, is not so much expected in material form as in the hope of forwarding the cause of sound railroad practice. All have my warm thanks, as I am sure they will also have the reader's and student's; and I trust that some of them may be moved to take up the work where I cease, fill up the gaps left by my friend Huntington, to say nothing of my own, and present a more perfect work ; at which none will more rejoice or be more ready to contribute than myself.
CHARLES LATIMER.


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