Part 1; AN OUTLINE HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENT The City and Suburbs of Paris
Like many other capitals Paris had a ring of fortifications around the City, with gates at which there were local Customs and "Import Duties". Not until about 1922 were these abolished ! However, the line of the old fortifications defines, much more precisely than in most other cities, the city limits of Paris : all areas outside the walls are regarded as suburbs; further out still are the outer suburbs, more to be regarded as dormitory areas. These latter are served by suburban railways operated, except for the Sceaux Line (see Part IV), by the State Railways (S.N.C.F.). With a total population of 8 million, of which nearly 3 million are within the city proper, Paris and its environs are maybe 20 to 25 miles across. The city limits, within the fortifications, are but 6 to 8 miles across. This was the area originally served by the M, hence "Porte de ..." ("Gate of ...") as the terminal stations on many lines. After 1930 short extensions into the inner suburbs were built : the suburbs themselves did not develop much until the fortifications were removed in the late twenties. "R.A.T.P." (Regie Autonome des Transports Parisiens) today operates the 14 Mlines and the Sceaux suburban line to the south west, serving the area of Sceaux-Robinson and the Chevreuse Valley.
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