Modern American Locomotive, The 1925 by Frederick J. Prior Reprint Soft Cover
Modern American Locomotive, The 1925 by Frederick J. Prior Reprint Soft Cover
Modern American Locomotive, The 1925 by Frederick J. Prior Reprint Soft Cover
Modern American Locomotive, The 1925 by Frederick J. Prior Reprint Soft Cover

Modern American Locomotive, The 1925 by Frederick J. Prior Reprint Soft Cover

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Modern American Locomotive, The 1925 by Frederick J. Prior Reprint Soft Cover
 
1925 Modern American Locomotive, The by Frederick J. Prior Soft Cover
The 1925 Modern American Locomotive Construction and Operation
By Frederick J. Prior
Soft Cover
Copyright 1925/1982 Reprint  Simmons-Boardman Books
292 pages
PREFACE
In the domain of locomotive design, construction and operation we see the results of a combined and gradual process of patient investigation and experimentation. The locomotive of today is one of the most wonderful machines ever devised by mechanical genius. It has not yet reached its limit of power and efficiency for the reason that it is a machine within a still greater machine-the great machine of transportation. There must be greater co-ordination of improvements and their carefully balanced incorporation before perfection is attained.
The locomotive must be harmoniously co-ordinated as one of the vital elements of the great transportation machine. Physical and operating improvements demand of locomotive men an understanding of track, operation and signaling. In like manner it demands of operating men, track, bridge, terminal and signal men a thorough understanding of the locomotive. And it demands of engineers who would contribute some improvement to the locomotive a careful study of all phases of the coming co-inordination with the physical and operating improvements rapidly being made. Here is an opportunity.
We are all inheritors of an immense legacy of the results of the labor and ingenuity of those of other generations. Just as the processes in the arts were brought to perfection by mind after mind, so with the locomotive from the time of Trevithick and Stephenson down to our own time.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
CONTENTS
CHAPTER I
FUNDAMENTAL WHY OF LOCOMOTIVE    17
CHAPTER II
LOCOMOTIVE-A TRINITY OF MECHANICAL MASTERY 21
Power House on Wheels
Four Divisions of Boiler 21
The Foundation   23
Valve Gears 23
Locomotive Classes 23
Tractive Effort   24
CHAPTER III
FUEL CONSUMPTION 25
Fundamentals 25
Composition of Fuels        25
Kinds of Coal 27
Percentages of Constituents      27
Thermal Value of Fuel 29
CHAPTER IV
COMBUSTION 31
The Elements 31
Combining Weights   33
Hard Coal 35
Igniting Temperature 36
Source of Loss 36
Water Units 37
The Draft 38
Firebox Temperatures 41
Evaporation 41
Waste of Fuel 42
Quantity of Coal Used 43
Effect of Load and Speed 43
CHAPTER V
FUEL OIL BURNERS   45
Arrangement 45
Heating the Oil 46
Starting Train or Engine 47
Avoiding Black Smoke   48
Putting Out Oil Fire 48
Brick Arches   49
Advantages and Disadvantages 49
CHAPTER VI
WATER CONSUMPTION 51
Maximum Quantity of Water    51
Intermediate Quantities of Water 51
Quantity of Water Affected by Pressure 52
Superheating 57
Waste of Water 58
Water Tanks 59
Quantity of Water 59
Treatment of Water 60
CHAPTER VII
CARE OF BOILERS    63
Stresses on Boiler 63
Boiler Troubles 65
Effect of Scale 65
Effect of Lime 65
CHAPTER VIII
STEAM ACTION 68
Work of Steam 68
Pressure of Steam 70
Steam Distribution  71
Compression  72
Steam Chest Pressure       74
Engineer's Good Judgment 75
Quantity of Steam 76
CHAPTER IX
VALVE MOTION. 78
Conditions Met 78
Valve Events 78
Admission, Cut Off, Release, Compression 79
Why a Shifting Link Changes Lead 80
Throw of Eccentric 80
Rule to Find Valve Travel 82
Link Motion 82
Travel of Valve 82
Eccentric Action 84
Inclined Cylinders 84
Angularity of Main Rod 85
Balanced Slide Valves 86
Relief Valves 87
Piston Valve 88
Power Needed to Move Valve 90
CHAPTER X
APPLICATION OF FORCE 91
Rotative Force 91
Strains Induced 92
CHAPTER XI
RUNNING GEAR 94
Parts Included in Running Gear   94
Wheels     94
Piston and Rods 94
Guides and Crossheads   95
Connecting and Main Rods 95
Crank Pins   96
Cylinder and Saddle 97
Driving Axles  97
Steam Chest Safety Valves 99
Drifting      100
Frames     100
CHAPTER XII
INERTIA 101
Meaning of Inertia 101
Starting and Stopping 102
Effects of Friction 103
Co-efficient of Friction 104
Centrifugal Force on Curves 106
Reciprocating Parts 108
Counterbalance 108
Underlying Principles    109
CHAPTER XIII
RESISTANCES   113
What Locomotive Must Overcome 113
Rail Friction or Adhesion 114
Train Resistance 114
Journal Resistance 114
Wind Resistance 114
Speed Resistance 115
Curve Resistance 115
Grade Resistance 116
Table of Resistances116
Inertia Resistance    117
Resistance Affected by Loading  117
Resistance Affected by Weather 118
Brake Shoe Friction 118
Center Plate and Side Bearing Friction 119
Miscellaneous Resistance  119
Tire Wear 121
Rolling Friction 122
Journal Friction 122
Flange Friction 122
Guide Friction  123
Pin Bearing 124
Stuffing Box Friction 125
Cylinder Friction 125
Valve Friction 126
Link Motion Friction  126
CHAPTER XIV
TRACTION INCREASERS    128
Tractive Forces  128
Figuring Tractive Force 128
Slipping 129
The Booster 129
CHAPTER XV
BRAKING 131
Definition of Air Brake 131
Essential Parts of Air Brake  131
Braking Power 131
Arrangement of Brakes 132
Various Applications 133
The Reductions    133
Releases 134
Charging 134
Lap 134
Quick Action 134
Equalized Pressure 134
Port    135
Register 135
Piston Travel  135
Standing Travel 135
Running Travel 135
False Travel 135
A Manual Device 135
Retention of Pressure    135
Retardation by Brakes 136
Wheel Sliding 137
Pump or Air Compressor 138
Starting the Pump 139
Lubricating a Cross Compound 140
Pump Governor 141
Duplex Pump Governor 141
Engineer's Brake Valve 141
E-T Braking Equipment 142
Measuring Piston Travel 142
Effect of Piston Travel   143
Comparing Driver and Car Brake 144
Main Reservoir 145
Triple Valve 145
Brake Power Exerted 146
Quick Service Feature 146
Independent Braking 147
Power Increase by Sanding 147
Auxiliary Devices Governor 148
Effect of Curves on Braking 148
Governor Operation 149
Special Equipments 149
CHAPTER XVI
STEAM CAPACITY 151
Grate Area 151
Heating Surface 151
Draft Action   154
Maximum Horsepower 154
CHAPTER XVII
HAULING CAPACITY 157
Tractive Force at Varying Speeds 157
Locomotive Rating 158
Momentum 159
Rating Fast and Slow Freights 160
Weight on Drivers 160
Effect on Coupled Drivers 161
CHAPTER XVIII
TRAIN RESISTANCE 163
Its Two Parts 163
Resistance Dependent on Velocity 163
Resistance Due to Gravity 165
CHAPTER XIX
SPEED RESISTANCE-LOCOMOTIVE AND TRAINS 167
Rule to Find Speed Resistance 167
Rule to Find Grade Resistance 167
Curve Resistance   167
Acceleration Resistance 168
Tractive Power 169
CHAPTER XX
LOCOMOTIVE CLASSES AND TYPES  170
Main Classes  170
Radical Departure from Original Types 170
Locomotive Classification  171
Railroad Classification 173
Whyte System of Classifying  173
Prevailing Types of Locomotives 173
Classification Tables 175
Types of Locomotive Boilers  175
Determining the Power Limit 175
Some Comparisons  175
Magnified "Old Ironsides" 178
Wide Firebox Standardized 179
Pacific Type  181
Mallet Articulated Type  181
Superheating Mallets 185
Controlling Valve Motion  185
Mechanical Stoking on Mallet 185
Running a Mallet 185
Starting a Mallet 187
Changing to Single Expansion 187
Maintaining a Mallet 187
Overcoming Mallet Slipping 189
Tractive Force of Mallet 189
Working Mallet Cut-Offs 189
CHAPTER XXI
TRIPLE ARTICULATED COMPOUND LOCOMOTIVE 194
Steam Driven Tender 194
Variable Weight on Wheels 195
Details of Construction 195
Mechanical Firing 197
Superheater 197
Valve Motion 197
Cylinders 198
Pistons 198
Frames   198
Tender Section   203
Feed Water Heating   204
Sanding 204
Draw-Bar Pull  204
CHAPTER XXII
LOCOMOTIVE ERECTING PRACTICE 206
Erecting Operations 212
Setting up Frames 216
Lining Up Frames and Cylinders 218
Checking Up Frames 218
Fitting Shoes and Wedges 219
Attaching Boiler Fittings  219
Preliminary Tests 219
Insulating and Jacketing 219
Fitting Boilers 220
Mounting Boiler on Frames 220
Truck, Driver and Trailer 221
Setting Valve Motion Up 221
Dead Centers 221
Miscellaneous Operations 222
Types of Balanced Valves 225
Richardson Type 225
CHAPTER XXIII
SPECIAL VALVES 224
Allen Slide Valve 234
Miller Slide Valve 224
Valve Principle  224
Allen-Richardson Type 226
Gould Type 226
Wilson Type 227
Piston Valves 227
Allfree Piston Valves 228
Young Type 230
CHAPTER XXIV
SPECIAL VALVE GEARS 231
Necessity of Special Valve Gearing 231
Walschaert's Valve Gear 233
Baker-Pilliod Valve Gear 233
Baker Valve Gear 237
Southern Valve Gear 239
Young Type "B"  Valve Gear   240
CHAPTER XXV
LOCOMOTIVE APPLIANCES   252
Locomotive Appliances in General 252
Ragonent Power Reversing Gear 253
Mellin Power Reversing Gear  253
Automatic Firedoors  254
Street Locomotive Stoker 255
Schmidt Top Header Superheater 257
Operating Schmidt Superheater 259
Injectors  260
Lifting and Non-Lifting Injectors 260
Feed Water Heaters  263
Worthington Feed Water Heater 263