Life of George Stephenson Railway Engineer by Samuel Smiles 1890 Fourth Lond
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Life of George Stephenson Railway Engineer by Samuel Smiles 1890 Fourth Lond
The Life of George Stephenson Railway Engineer by Samuel Smiles
1890? Fourth London Edition
The Village of Wylam.-Birthplace of George Stephenson.-His Parentage.-Race.-The Stephenson Family.-Wylam Wagon-way.-DewleyBurn Pp. 17-22
Is employed as a Herd-boy.-Models Clay Engines.-Labours a-field.Drives the Gin-Horse at the Colliery.-Bird-nesting.-Is made Assistant Fireman.-Jolly's Close.-Athletic Feats.-Is appointed Engineman. Study of the Steam-engine 23-29
Newburn.-Experiments in Artificial Bird-hatching.-Puts himself to School and learns to Read and Write.-Learns Arithmetic.-Love of tame Birds and Animals.-His Dog Messenger.-Learns Engine-braking .. 30-35
Brakesman at Black Callerton.-Duties of the Brakesman.-Wages.Ekes out his Earnings by Shoe-mending.-Falls in Love.-Saves his First Guinea.-Sobriety.-Quarrel and Fight with Ned Nelson 36-40
Removal to Willington.-Marriage.-Attempts to invent Perpetual Motion. -Makes Shoes and Shoe Lasts.-Clock-cleaning.-Birth of his Son.-Removal to Killingworth . 41-45
Killingworth Colliery.-Death of his Wife.-Journey into Scotland.-Appointed Brakesman at Killingworth.-Intends emigrating to the United States.-Takes a Contract for Engine-braking.-Makes Improvements in Pumping Engines, and acquires Celebrity as a Pump-curer Pp. 46-56
Self-improvement.-His Studies with John Wigham, the Farmer's Son.-Sends his Son to School.-The Cottage at West Moor.-Ingenuity of his Contrivances.-Is appointed Engine-wright of the Colliery.-Erects his First Engine.-Evening Studies.-His Obligations to the Newcastle Literary Institute . 57-66
The Beginnings of Railways and Locomotives.-Early Tramroads. Speculations as to mechanical Methods of Traction.-Cugnot's Model Locomotive.-Symington's Model.-Murdoch's Model.-Trevethick's Steam-carriage and Locomotive.-Blenkinsop's Engine.-Mr. Blackett's Experiments at Wylam . 67-86
Mr. Stephenson contemplates building a Locomotive.-Is encouraged by Lord Ravensworth.-Want of competent Mechanics.-Mr. Stephenson's First Locomotive described.-Successful Application of the Steam Blast.-His Second Locomotive.-Summary of the important Results effected. . 87-98
CHAPTER X. -
Fatal Accidents from Explosions in Coal Mines.-Blasts in the Killing-worth Pit.-Mr. Stephenson's Experiments with Fire-damp.-Contrives the First practicable Miners' Safety Lamp.-Its trial in the Killingworth Pit-Further Experiments and Improvements on the Lamp.-Exhibited at Newcastle 99-112
The Invention of the Tube Lamp.-Mr. Stephenson charged with Pirating Sir H. Davy's Idea.-His Reply.-Dates of the respective Inventions.-Controversy on the Subject.-Testimonials presented to both the Inventors.-Summary of Evidence as to the Invention of the Lamp 113-131
Further Improvements in the Locomotive.-Invents an Improved Rail and Chair.-Invents Steam Springs.-Experiments on Friction and Gravity.-Views on Flat Gradients.-Superiority of Iron Roads over Paved Roads.Pp. 132-141
His Self-education continued.-Views on Education.-The Sun-dial at Killingworth.-Apprentices his Son as Under-viewer at the Colliery.-Sends him to Edinburgh University . 142-149
Slow Progress of Opinion as to Railway Locomotion.-Sir Richard Phillips's Prophetic Anticipations.-William James.-Edward Pease, Projector of the Stockton and Darlington Railway.-Thomas Gray.-Mr.
Stephenson constructs the Hetton Railway 150-165
Defective Communication between Liverpool and Manchester.-A Tram-road projected.-Mr. James surveys a Line.-Visits Mr. Stephenson at Killingworth.-Is admitted to an Interest in the Patent Locomotive.-Fails in introducing it.-Fails to produce his Plans of the Liverpool Tramroad . 166-173
Mr. Stephenson's Introduction to Mr. Pease.-Is appointed Engineer to the Stockton and Darlington Railway.-Makes a new Survey.-Proposed Employment of Locomotives.-Fixed Engines advocated.-M6 Pease visits Killingworth 174-179
Working Survey of the Stockton and Darlington Line.-Locomotive Factory at Newcastle commenced.-Wrought-iron Rails adopted.-The Gauge of the Railway settled.-The Tractive Power to be employed.-Anticipations of Railway Results.-Public Opening of the Line. The "Experiment "-Rival Coach Companies.-Race between Locomotive and Coach.-Results of the Traffic.-Creation of Middlesborough-onTees 180-195
Project of the Liverpool and Manchester Railway revived.-The Canal Companies' Opposition.-Provisional Committee formed.-Their Visits to Killingworth.-Mr. Stephenson appointed to Survey a Line.-Difficulties encountered.-Articles in the " Scotsman " and " Quarterly " on Railways .. 196-209
The Liverpool and Manchester Bill in Committee of the House of Commons.-Mr. Stephenson in the Witness-box.--Mr. Giles proves the Impossibility of forming a Railway over Chat Moss.-Mr. Stephen-son's Ignorance denounced by the Counsel for the Opposition.-Mr. Adam's Appeal.-Defeat of essential Clauses, and Withdrawal of the Bill . Pp. 210-226
Renewed Application to Parliament for the Liverpool and Manchester Bill -Messrs. Rennie selected as Parliamentary Engineers.-Passing of the Act-Mr. Stephenson appointed Chief Engineer.-The Drainage of Chat Moss.-The Directors contemplate the Abandonment of the Work. -Mr. Stephenson's Perseverance.-His Organization of Labour.-The Railway Navvy.-Progress of the Works.-Private Life and Habits at Liverpool . 227-244
General Opposition to the Locomotive.-Mr. Telford's Report.-Variety of Schemes suggested for the working of the Liverpool and Manchester Railway.-Messrs. Walker and Rastrick's Report in favour of fixed Engines and against the Locomotive.-The Directors offer a Prize of 500l. for the best Engine. 245-254
The Newcastle Locomotive Foundry.-Robert Stephenson's Return from America.-Rencontre with Trevethick.-The Building of the " Rocket." -Contrivance of the Multi-tubular Boiler.-Modification of the Blastpipe.-The " Rocket " finished and sent to Liverpool . 255-265
The Locomotive Competition at Rainhill.-Entry of Engines for the Prize.-The Judges appointed.-The " Rocket " stript for the Race.-The " Novelty."-The "Sans-pareil"-The Performances of the "Rocket."-Wins the Prize.-Congratulations of Mr. Stephenson.-The End of the "Rocket". 266-272
Completion of the Liverpool and Manchester Line.-The Public Opening. -Fatal Accident to Mr. Huskisson.-Lord Brougham's Panegyric of the Railway.-Commercial Results of the Undertaking.-Further Improvements in the Locomotive.-Alleged Monopoly.-The Workmen employed.-Improvement of the Road and Rolling Stock . 273-286
Importance of Mr. Stephenson's Invention of the Passenger Engine.-Government and Railways.-Joint-stock Companies.-New Railways projected and made.-The London and Birmingham Railway.-The Kilsby Tunnel.-Excess in the Cost of Construction beyond the Estimates.-Magnitude of the Work-s.-Comparison with the Great Pyramid . Pp. 287-304
Advance of Public Opinion in favour of Railways.-Siilgular Instances of Opposition to Railways and Predictions of Failure.-Locomotion on Common Roads promoted by the Legislature.-Results of the Opening from London to Liverpool, &c.-Benefits to the Public.-Travelling by Stagecoach and Private Carriage.-Mr. Stephenson in a Stage-coach Accident.-The Railway at length adopted by all Classes 305-317
Leases the Snibston Estate.-Discovery of Beds of Coal.-Private Life at Alton Grange.-Busiest Period of Mr. Stephenson's Career.-Anecdote of the Starved Robins.-Lines in the Northern and Midland Districts.-The Manchester and Leeds.-Lord Wharncliffe's Opposition in Committee.-The Littleborough Tunnel.-The North Midland.-Comparison of the Works with Napoleon's Road across the Simplon.-Mr. Stephenson's Anticipations as to the Coal Traffic to London by Railway.-The York and North Midland.-Public Opening.-The Sheffield and Rotherham.-Mr. Stephenson's Pupils and Assistants 318-341
Surveys an East Coast line to Scotland.-Line from Chester to Holyhead--West Coast Line to Glasgow.-Leeds and Bradford.-Rapidity of Railway Development.-Is checked by the Monetary Pressure 342-350
The Modern School of English Engineers.-Fast Men.-History of the Narrow Gauge.-Increased Width on the Great Western.-Mr. Brunel. -Battle of the Gauges.-The Atmospheric Railway.-The Undulating System.-Notions of Fast Travelling.-Mr. Stephenson invents a Railway Safety-brake.-His Moderate Views of Railway Speed, &c. compared with those of the Fast Men.-Commercial Considerations 351-366
Mr. Stephenson resigns the Chief Engineership of several Railways.- Residence at Tapton in Derbyshire.-Leases Clay Cross and Tapton Collieries.-Proposed Testimonial.-Sir Robert Peel's Allusion to his useful Career.-His Interest in Mechanics' Institutes.-Chairman of Yarmouth and Norwich Railway. -Completion of the East Coast Route to Newcastle.-Public Celebration of the Event.-Autobiographic Sketch. -The Proposed Northumberland Atmospheric Line.-The Newcastle High-level Bridge . Pp. 367-381
Railway Management.-Railway Success stimulates Speculation.-Multitude of New Projects.-Sale of Premiums of new Shares on 'Change.-The Railway Mania.-Mr. Stephenson holds aloof from and discountenances it.-Immense Number of New Lines authorized by Parliament.-Sir Robert Peel's Encouragement of direct and uneven Lines.-Mr. Stephenson's Letter of Expostulation.-Legislative Bungling.-Great Waste of Capital.-Demoralizing Effects of the Mania.-The Navvy as a Contractor.-Mr. Stephenson's Mode of executing Railway Works . 382-396
Introduction to Mr. Hudson.-His Railway Career.-The Railway King. -Acknowledgment of Mr. Stephenson's Services.-Public Statue proposed.-Mr. Hudson's Appropriation of Shares.-Results of the Railway Saturnalia.-Mr. Hudson dethroned. 397-404
The Railway System early adopted by Leopold, King of the Belgians.-Mr. Stephenson consulted in the laying out of the Belgian Railways.-Is made Knight of the Order of Leopold.-Journeys of Railway-Inspection in Belgium.-Banquet at Ghent and Brussels.-Interview with the King.-Visit to France and Spain.-Illness and Return to England . 405-415
Horticultural Pursuits at Tapton.-His Pines, Melons, and Grapes.-Makes Cucumbers grow straight.-Stock-feeding.-Theory of Vegetation.-Fattening of Chickens.-Bees.-Indoor Habits.-Conversible Faces ; Lord Denman.-Visits of Friends.-Reverenee for Nature.-The )licroseope.-Spirit ofFrolic.-A "Crowdie Night."-Humble Visitors. -Rebukes Foppery.-Visits to London and Newcastle.-Visit to Sir Robert Peel at Drayton.-The Clay Cross Workmen's Institute 416-427
Correspondence with Inventors.-Invents a Three-cylinder Locomotive.-His self-acting Carriage-brake.-Public Opening of the Trent Valley Railway.-Railway Celebration at Manchester.-Meeting with Emerson. -Illness and Death.-Tribute of the London and Northwestern Railway Company to his Memory.-Statues.-Portrait 428-439
Character of George Stephenson.-Race.-Self-reliance.-Improvement of Time.-Perseverance.-Encounter with Difficulties.-Thoroughness. Determination.-Attention to Details.-Care for his Son's Education.-Admiration inspired by him.-Generosity.-Honest Thrift.-Patience. Comparison with Watt.-Manners and Deportment.-Close Observation of Facts.-Hatred of Humbug.-" Ornamental Initials."-The (civil Engineers.-Offer of Knighthood.-Conclusion . 440-452
ROF THE RAILWAY SYSTEM AND ITS RESULTS. BY R. STEPHENSON, ESQ., M.P.
Length of Railways in Great Britain.-Cost.-Works.-Working.-Traffic. -Wear and Tear. - Fares. - Postal Facilities afforded by Railways.-Legislation for Railways.-Management of Railways.-Electric Telegraph.-Accidents.-General Results.-Practical Application 455-486
THE Invention of the Locomotive Engine and its application to the working of Railways, is one of the most remarkable events of the present century.
Within a period of about thirty years, railways have been adopted as the chief means of internal communication in all civilized countries.
The expenditure involved in their construction has been of an extraordinary character. In Great Britain alone, at the end of the year 1856, not less than 308,775,8941. bad been raised and expended in the construction of 8,635 miles of railway, which were then open for public traffic.
This great work has been accomplished under the eyes of the generation still living ; and the vast funds requited for the purpose have been voluntarily raised by private individuals, without the aid of a penny from the public purse.
The system of British Railways, whether considered in point of utility or in respect of the gigantic character and extent of the works involved in their construction, must be regarded as the most munificent public enterprise yet accomplished in this country,-far surpassing all that has been achieved by any government, or by the combined efforts of society in any former age.
But railways have proved of equal importance to other countries, and been adopted by them to a large extent In the United States, there are at present not less than 26,000 miles in active operation ; and when the Grank Trunk system of Canada has been completed, that fine colony will possess rand communicatons 1500 miles in extent.
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