Iron and Steel by JH Stansbie HArd Cover 1908 375 pages Westminister Series
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Iron and Steel by JH Stansbie HArd Cover 1908 375 pages Westminister Series
Iron and Steel by J. H. Stansbie B.Sc. Pub. 1908 375 pages, Part of the Westminster Series
IRON is the most important of all the metals that have been pressed into the service of man, which is due, not only to its great abundance in Nature, but also to its unique properties. The result of this is that no one metal has received so much attention from both practical men and scientists, as is shown by the fact that some of the most prominent men in Europe and America are investigating the many chemical and physical properties of the metal and its application to the requirements of civilisation. Thus an enormous mass of information has accumulated, and is to be found in original papers and books. Portions of the subject are still in their youth and are growing vigorously, so that the teacher of to-day must become the student of to-morrow. On the other hand, parts of it are so old that their origin is lost in the mists of time, and dates back to the first glimmerings of that intelligence which now enables man to utilise to the fullest extent the valuable properties of the metal.
Although the necessity of technical instruction for the worker in metals has become an acknowledged fact, the question of what form it shall take is still engaging the attention of educationalists. It is clear, however, that the greater the knowledge the worker has of the material he is using, the more satisfactory will be the result of his labour, both to himself and to the community he serves.
Therefore the aim of technical instruction should be to foster intelligent effort to the utmost. To teachers who have assisted in the growth of technical education in this country, and have come into contact with those workers
who are willing to take advantage of it, one fact stands out clearly, viz., that a very large proportion of technical students come to the work more or less tired with their daily labour, and have but a limited time to devote to self-improvement. This requires that every assistance should be given to their efforts, and that the subjects they study should be as self-contained as possible. The aim should be to increase the general capability of the greatest number, and not to turn out a few highly trained men.
In the works, economy of material and labour should be the first aim, and nothing can conduce so much to this as a thorough knowledge of the material itself.
The aim of this book is to give as comprehensive a view as its limits will permit of the modern aspects of iron and steel manufacture, together with a sufficient account of its history to enable the reader to follow its march of progress. The methods of producing varieties of the metal suitable to the requirements of the engineer, foundryman and mechanician are described sufficiently to enable the user to follow the producer in his work, and thus learn the history of the material he is handling. The main portion of the book has been written from notes used for courses of lectures on iron and steel manufacture extending over many years, and has been brought up to date by reference to the latest books and papers on the subject. The author PREFACE.vii
has, therefore, to express his sincere obligation to the many authors of works and papers on the subject, and to the practical men with whom he has come into contact who have so freely given him information that can only be obtained from such sources. Throughout the iron and steel industry both master and man are always willing to give of their best, and that freely.
The diagrams are intended to assist the reader in following the text, and are not to be regarded as working drawings. Whenever possible, photographs of the actual apparatus have been introduced to supplement the drawings, and in this connection the thanks of both reader and author are due to such well-known firms as Messrs. Firth, of Sheffield ; Messrs. Hickman, and Messrs. Perry, of Bilston ; Messrs. Avery, of Birmingham ; Messrs. Massey, of Manchester ; the Cambridge Scientific Instrument Company, and the Carron Company of Glasgow.
The thanks of the author are also due to the Council of the Iron and Steel Institute, and to the Committee of the Faraday Society for permission to copy diagrams from original papers in their Proceedings. He is also grateful to Messrs. C. II. Clark and W. H. Juggins for assistance in the preparation of diagrams and in reading the proof sheets.
J. H. S.
MUNICIPAL TECHNICAL SCHOOL,
II.IRON ORES, COMBUSTIBLE AND OTHER MATERIALS USED IN IRON. AND STE EL MANUFACTURE. 14
III.PRIMITIVE METHODS OF IRON AND STEEL PRODUCTION51
IV.PIG IRON AND ITS MANUFACTURE. 67
V.THE REFINING OF PIG IRON IN SMALL CHARGES .. 116
VL CRUCIBLE AND WELD STEEL. 140
VII.THE BESSEMER PROCESS156
VIII.THE OPEN HEARTH PROCESS. 182
IX.MECHANICAL TREATMENT OF IRON AND STEEL .. 214
X.PHYSICAL AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF IRON AND STEEL 254
XI.IRON AND STEEL UNDER THE MICROSCOPE .
XII.HEAT TREATMENT OF IRON AND STEEL
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
A SCOTCH BLAST FURNACE PLANT.Frontispiece.
THE THOMPSON CALORIMETER
THE OTTO-HOFFMAN COKE OVEN
THE DUFF-WHITFIELD PRODUCERPAGE
5.IRON SMELTING IN INDIA53
6.THE CATALAN FORGE55
7.THE HIGH BLOOMERY58
8.THE HUSGAFVEL FURNACE60
9.BLAST FURNACE WITH OPEN TOP68
10.GJERS CALCINING KILN .72
11.MODERN BLAST FURNACE75
12.WATER-COOLED HOT-BLAST TWYER78
13.BOTTOM OF BLAST FURNACE SHOWING TWYERS INPOSITION.79
14.COWPER'S HOT-BLAST STOVE .81
16.A MODERN BLAST FURNACE PLANT.85
17.CUP AND CONE.91
18.MECHANICAL CHARGING APPARATUS.101
19.FRACTURES OF PIG IRON105
20.FOUNDRY CUPOLA .
21.SWEDISH LANCASHIRE HEARTH117
22.DIAGRAM OF PUDDLING FURNACE.123
23.WORKING SIDE OF PUDDLING FURNACE..126
24.THE PERNOT FURNACE .136
25.CEMENTATION FURNACE .142
27.CRUCIBLE STEEL MELTING AT NORFOLK WORKS, SHEFFIELD 148
28.STYRIAN OPEN HEARTH .150
30.ECCENTRIC CONVERTER .162
32.CASTING LADLE 164
33.CONVERTER AND CRANES IN BESSEMER SHOP168
34.BESSEMER CONVERTER IN POSITION171
35.CONVERTER BOTTOM IN REPAIRING SHOP173
36.CASTING BASIC STEEL AT SPRING VALE WORKS175
37.MOULDS AND CRANES IN BESSEMER SHOP179
38.REGENERATIVE OPEN HEARTH, DIAGRAM183
39.REGENERATIVE OPEN HEARTH (TRANSVERSE SECTION) .186
40.FRONT VIEW OF REGENERATIVE OPEN HEARTH .188
41.WORKING PLATFORM OF OPEN HEARTH FURNACES.191
42.TAPPING SIDE OF OPEN HEARTH FURNACE194
43.CAMPBELL TILTING FURNACE (DIAGRAM)205
44.TILTING FURNACE WITH ELECTRIC CHARGER.207
45.THE HELVE HAMMER .214
46.INTERIOR OF THE CLAY WHEEL FORGE.215
47.EXTERIOR OF THE CLAY WHEEL FORGE217
48.STEAM HAMMER 219
49.A STAND OF ROLLS222
50.REHEATING OR MILL FURNACE223
51.MILD STEEL INGOT227
52.GAS-FIRED REHEATING FURNACE OR SOAKING PITS235
53.A STAND OF THREE HIGH ROLLS .241
55.RAIL ROLLS .245
56.A 3,000-TONVHYDRAULIC PRESS .249
57.INTERIOR OF STEEL. ROLLING MILL252
58.DIAGRAM OF TENSILE TESTING. MACHINE257
59.TENSILE TESTING MACHINE IN POSITION258
60.TENSILE TEST PIECES .260
63.LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.
SHACKLES FOR CRUSHING TESTS.
DIAGRAM OF TRANSVERSE TESTING MACHINE.
TRANSVERSE TESTING MACHINExiii
64.PENDULUM DROP TEST MACHINE264
68.AUSTENITE AND MARTENSITE278
69.GRAPHITE AND FERRITE280
70.CAST IRON CONTAINING SULPHUR281
71.CAST IRON WITH PHOSPHIDE EUTECTIC .282
72.ANNEALED AND HARDENED STEEL.283
73.COOLING CURVES OF COPPER AND IRON.285
74.COOLING CURVE OF LEAD TIN ALLOYS.289
75.COOLING CURVE OF SALT SOLUTION291
76.COOLING CURVES OF IRON CARBON ALLOYS297
77.THE ROBERTS-AUSTEN-ROOZEBOOM CURVE299
78.MUFFLE. FURNACE .304
80.RADIATION PYROMETER ...316
81.ALTERNATORS IN POSITION..321
82.THE IAROULT FURNACE.327
83.THE HEROULT FURNACE IN POSITION.329
84.THE KJELLIN FURNACE .330
85.THE STASSANO FURNACE.332
86.THE KELLER FURNACE ..337
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