Images Of Rail Philadelphia Railroads By Allen Meyers and Joel Spivak Soft Cover
Images Of Rail Philadelphia Railroads By Allen Meyers and Joel Spivak Soft Cover
Images Of Rail Philadelphia Railroads By Allen Meyers and Joel Spivak Soft Cover

Images Of Rail Philadelphia Railroads By Allen Meyers and Joel Spivak Soft Cover

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Images Of Rail Philadelphia Railroads By Allen Meyers and Joel Spivak Soft Cover
 
Images Of Rail Philadelphia Railroads By Allen Meyers and Joel Spivak
Softcover 127 pages

CONTENTS
Preface
Introduction
1.Early History
2.The Changing Landscape
3.Philadelphia Built
4.Stations and Terminals
5.Junctions
6.Bridges and Tunnels
7.Working on the Railroad
8. Locomotives
9.Rapid Transit Lines
INTRODUCTION
The birthplace of America, Philadelphia displayed leadership in the 1830s, less than 50 years after the country's founding, when new modes of transportation were put into operation. Moving around in the early 1800s meant using a horse and wagon or a stagecoach to reach nearby communities. The development of canal companies to plan and build waterways to move products added another component to this era.
Meanwhile, another new method of moving products to market also made its appearance on the scene. The Industrial Revolution, which started in England during this same time period, encouraged the drive for more efficient transportation. The invention of wooden rails, and later iron rails, set down on stones meant that heavier wagonloads pulled by teams of horses could move farther and faster along these railroads.
Many men driven by the prospect to join in the new movement yielded the start of the railroad era. The inventions kept happening in rapid succession. Thomas Leiper constructed the first railroad in America to haul stones from his quarry to market, which was south of Philadelphia. In 1809, he showcased his idea at the Bull's Head Inn tavern in the Northern Liberties District, just north of Philadelphia.
Railroad companies merged with canal companies to transverse the land in Pennsylvania, such as the public works project owned and funded by the Pennsylvania State Legislature. Starting in the late 1820s, the Philadelphia and Columbia Railroad had a grand plan to connect Philadelphia to Pittsburgh via many lines of transportation, which included canals and railroads.
A movement in America to harness steam power for use in transporting passengers and freight took place in Philadelphia during the Industrial Revolution. Raw resources nearby in the way of iron ore from the mountains of Pennsylvania, along with plentiful timber and a growing labor force, allowed the city to become a hub of railroad building in the 1830s, with 12 individual lines.
Matthias Baldwin, a local jeweler, turned his creativity and skills into a new industry by founding the Baldwin Locomotive Works in Philadelphia. The forged metal and applied science all came together when Baldwin created his first steam engine, Old Ironsides, in 1831.
The connection of communities several miles from the heart of Philadelphia without teams of horses and wagons meant that the populace could live in the outlying districts with a direct connection to the city for commerce. The first railroad to employ the Baldwin product included the recently chartered Philadelphia, Germantown, and Norristown Railroad line in 1832.
The 1854 consolidation of the city into 27 districts, townships, and boroughs was made easier by the early development of the railroads servicing the new Philadelphia County. After seeking articles of incorporations, and upon the successful sales of stocks to ensure the start of these ventures, railroad lines developed established routes. New methods of burning various fuels, such as wood and hard and soft coal, along with continuous new inventions in riding safety and security, happened right here in Philadelphia. Ocean and land routes south to Baltimore, west to Pittsburgh, and north to New York City gave rise to a very strong economy.
New bridges and tunnels allowed access to Philadelphia from all directions, but new junctions and freight yards created anxious moments for city residents who expanded their residential addresses beyond the original reaches of the railroads. Now some communities were hemmed in by the building of so many tracks. The solutions to these problems took several decades to correct. Elevated structures and embankments moved the dangerous tracks away from adults and children alike. Tunnels for subways made rapid transit in downtown Philadelphia a reality.
The era of applied science and industrial might came together again within 100 years when the railroad industry applied the introduction of electricity to its railroads in the late I890s. A second revolution soon took place whereby various transportation outlets had to depend on each other for supplies and labor.
The increase in population of Philadelphia and other parts of the nation necessitated a new fuel; therefore, diesel was introduced to the market and was used for powering the many locomotives in the early 1920s. Coal was plentiful, but the struggle to obtain this natural resource as fuel for steam locomotives was shared by city residents who needed it to heat their homes, both of which used vast amounts of hard coal.
Population shifts in Philadelphia dictated the removal of major railroad hubs to various parts of the city in hope of relieving all types of congestion. The building and planning, plus the implementation, went on in most years of the 20th century. In 1932, the U.S. government lent the Pennsylvania Railroad $150 million to upgrade and electrify passenger railroad lines in Philadelphia and the Northeast Corridor.
One hundred years after the start of the railroad industry in Philadelphia came the expansion of automobiles and buses, which competed with the railroads for customers. It was only the start of World War II that extended the life of steam locomotives for another decade.
A railroad renaissance took place in Philadelphia in the 1950s. The Bridge Line from Camden, New Jersey, via the Benjamin Franklin Bridge to Eighth and Market Streets, was extended to Sixteenth and Locust Streets in 1952 through the construction of a tunnel under Locust Street, originally built in 1917. The Broad Street Subway extended to Fern Rock to allow an organized bus loop to ferry riders to destinations in Northwest Philadelphia. The Pennsylvania Railroad demolished its Broad Street Station and the six-block-long "Chinese Wall" (viaduct) from West Philadelphia to city hall, which made Thirtieth Street Station the central address of Philadelphia's railroad hub system. The famous Subway-Surface for trolley cars extended to West Philadelphia under the campuses of Drexel University and the University of Pennsylvania, with portals at Fortieth Street and Woodland Avenue and Thirty-sixth and Chestnut Streets. Thus a unique piece of urban history, with its trolley switching tower at Thirty-second and Market Streets, came to a close. The new Twenty-second Street station of the Subway-Surface, which was located below ground, replaced the Twenty-third Street station. All this occurred in preparation for the Market Street El to go into a subway tunnel that was built in the 1930s. The Market Street El went under the Schuylkill River and rose up to the elevated structure from a portal at Powelton Avenue and Market Street, with its first elevated stop then at Forty-sixth Street. With all this construction in the 1950s, University City took on a whole new image.
The effect on the changing landscape of Philadelphia is a subject unknown. But rather it is found fragmented in articles, books, and journals. Over 190 different railroads, companies, and lines existed in Philadelphia and its nearby suburbs from 1830 to 1930. Philadelphia Railroads seeks to give the reading public a visual history and outline of this great aspect of the city's history. All the railroads listed in this book in parenthesis are their charter incorporation dates.

PHILADELPHIA, PENNSYLVANIA
Philadelphia became the railroad capital of the world in the 1830s, when 12 distinct lines opened within a 100-mile radius of the city to carry people and freight. The railroad boom in the 19th century was made possible by the development of rural communities surrounding the, city, the Industrial Revolution, excellent access to raw materials, and an influx of European immigrants. Philadelphia manufactured locomotives, railroad track, and other rail components and exported them around the world. The ability to move agricultural goods, manufactured products, and people commuting from home to work helped to unite the 27 boroughs, districts, and townships into one metropolis by 1854. Philadelphia Railroads features many unseen images and rare photographs documenting the leaders of Philadelphia's transportation world.
Local historian Allen Meyers, a Gratz Hebrew College graduate, haA authored nine previous titles with Arcadia Publishing in the Philadelphia area. Joel Spivak is a noted rail historian and promoter who is an architectural consultant in Philadelphia. He is also the coauthor of Philadelphia Trolleys.
The Images of Rail series celebrates the history of rail, trolley, streetcar, and subway transportation across the country. Using archival photographs, each title presents the people, places, and events that helped revolutionize transportation and commerce in 19th- and 20th-century America. Arcadia is proud to play a part in the preservation of local heritage, making history available to all.

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