ICS Rail and Water Routes and Rates #5415 Edition 1 by Johnston 1940, 1943 Ed
ICS Rail and Water Routes and Rates #5415 Edition 1 by Johnston 1940, 1943 Ed

ICS Rail and Water Routes and Rates #5415 Edition 1 by Johnston 1940, 1943 Ed

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ICS Rail and Water Routes and Rates #5415 Edition 1 by Johnston 1940, 1943 Ed
Rail and Water Routes and Rates  #5415 Edition 1 by Johnston 1940, 1943 Edition   International Correspondence Schools  Some light staining   54 Pages
1. Rail and Water Transportation.-In other lessons the transportation of freight over all-rail routes is considered. A substantial amount of domestic freight is also moved over routes composed of both rail and water lines. Some domestic freight originating at and destined to ports is shipped over all-water or port-to-port routes. Rates on freight shipments which move over routes that are partly or wholly composed of water carriers are ordinarily lower than all-rail rates. For this reason these routes are often attractive to shippers and consignees.
Traffic men, however, should bear in mind that the low rates are due not only to the fact that the cost of transportation by water is usually less than by rail, but also to the fact that water services often possess certain disadvantages. One of these disadvantages is the slow movement of water traffic. The slow speed of vessels as compared with that of trains is sometimes more than offset by vessels proceeding directly to their destinations without intermediate stops, but this is not usually the case. Another disadvantage of rail and water routes is the extra handling of shipments necessary in transferring them from one carrier to another. Moreover, steamship lines cannot accept certain types of freight and can transport certain other types only under specified conditions. Lists of prohibited and restricted articles are shown in tariffs. A further disadvantage is that on the Great Lakes and many other inland waterways, ice conditions make it impossible for water carriers to operate during several months of the year.
The decision whether to use an all-rail route or a rail and water route (or possibly an all-water route) is one that frequently requires the careful consideration of many factors. The nature of the goods comprising the shipment will often be the deciding factor. It is obvious, however, that employees of traffic departments should be familiar with rail and water and all-water routes and the conditions and rates that apply to shipments moving over them.
There are no fixed relationships between all-rail and joint rail and water rates or all-water rates which are generally observed throughout the United States. In any given instance, the relationship depends on such conditions as the following :
1. The kind of traffic moved.
2. The intensity of the competition between the carriers concerned.
3. The proportion that the rail mileage bears to the total mileage of the route.
4. The time required to move traffic from point of origin to destination. This in turn depends on the frequency of the service, the directness of the route, and the speed at which the carrier moves.
5. Absorption or non-absorption of marine insurance charges in the rail and water and all-water rates.
2. Types of Water Carriers.-The water carriers in the United States that transport freight in conjunction with railroads fall into three major groups, each of which will now be discussed. These are:
1. Great Lakes water carriers.

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