American Locomotives An Engineering History 1830-1880 Revised and Expanded Ed
American Locomotives An Engineering History 1830-1880 Revised and Expanded Ed
American Locomotives An Engineering History 1830-1880 Revised and Expanded Ed
American Locomotives An Engineering History 1830-1880 Revised and Expanded Ed
American Locomotives An Engineering History 1830-1880 Revised and Expanded Ed
American Locomotives An Engineering History 1830-1880 Revised and Expanded Ed
American Locomotives An Engineering History 1830-1880 Revised and Expanded Ed
American Locomotives An Engineering History 1830-1880 Revised and Expanded Ed
American Locomotives An Engineering History 1830-1880 Revised and Expanded Ed
American Locomotives An Engineering History 1830-1880 Revised and Expanded Ed

American Locomotives An Engineering History 1830-1880 Revised and Expanded Ed

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American Locomotives An Engineering History 1830-1880 Revised and Expanded Ed
American Locomotives An Engineering History 1830-1880 Revised and Expanded Edition By John H. White Jr.
593 Pages Indexed
Hard Cover with Dust Jacket.  (dust jacket has some damage)
Copyright 1968, 1997

Table of Contents
Part 1 Era of Fundamental Locomotive Design

Regional Considerations 14
Regional Influences on Design 15
Manufacturing Facilities 16
Production 19
Business Aspects of Locomotive Building 23 Standard Design 25
Export of American Locomotives 27
Wood 30
Copper and Brass 30 Cast Iron 30
Wrought Iron 31 Steel 32
The 4-2-0 33 The 4-4-0 46 The 4-6-0 57 The 2-6-0 62 The 2-8-0 65 The 0-4-0, 0-6-0, and 0-8-0 66
Train Speeds 73
Locomotive Power 74
Annual Mileage 77
Performance Costs 77 Fuel Costs per Mile 77 Labor Costs 79
Repair Costs 79
Lubricating Costs 79
Operating Cost Trends 80
7. FUEL  83
Coal-Burning 86
Boilers 93
Boiler Construction 97
Boiler Tubes 99
Boiler Lagging and Jackets 100 Firebox Construction 102
Coal-Burning Fireboxes 105
Grates 108
Grate Area and Heating Surface 110 Smokeboxes 111
Blast Pipes 111
Variable Exhausts 113
Smokestacks and Spark Arrestors 114
The Bonnet Stack 117
The Centrifugal Stack 120
Perforated Cone Stacks 121
Smokebox Spark Arrestors 123
Feed-Water Pumps 124
Injectors 128
Gauge Glasses and Cocks 132
Steam Gauges 133
Feed-Water Heaters 137
Superheaters 142
Throttles 145
Safety Valves 146
Introduction 151
Suspension 151
Springs 156
Frames 158
Bar Frames 159
Riveted Frames 161
Slab-Rail Frames 162
Frame Construction 164
Trucks 167
Iron-Frame Trucks 169
Spread Trucks 172
Safety Trucks 173
Trailing Trucks 175
Driving Wheels and Axles 175
Iron Wheels 176
Cushion Wheels 177
Axles 178
Tires 179
Cast-Iron Tires 181 Steel Tires 182
Locomotive Brakes 184 Rods and Crossheads 184 Rods 184
Crossheads 186
Valve Gears 187
Independent Cutoffs 189 Variable Cutoffs 192 Link Motion 194
Radial Valve Gears 199 Corliss Valve Gears 201
Valves and Valve Ports 202
Valve and Cylinder Lubrication 204 Cylinders 206
Inside Connection 208
Compound Locomotives 209
Cowcatchers 211
Bells and Whistles 212
Headlights 215
Decorative Treatment and Finish 218
Cabs 221
Tenders 223
The Sandbox and Other Traction-Increasers 234
Stourbridge Lion, 1829 239
John Bull, 1831 248
Lancaster, 1834 269
Dunham, ca. 1837 280
Gowan and Marx, 1839 287
Winans' 4-4-0, 1843-49 297
Philadelphia, 1849 302
Copiapo, 1850 311
Four Fast Passenger Locomotives of the Hudson River Railroad 320
Champlain, 1849 322 Croton, 1851 328
Columbia, 1852 337
Superior, 1854 341
Susquehanna, A Winans Camel, 1854 347
Talisman, 1856-57 358
The Tyson Ten Wheeler, 1857 366 Phantom, 1857 383
Southport, 1857 392
The Flexible-Beam-Truck
Locomotive, 1857 396
A Rogers Mogul of 1863 407
The Erie Mogul No. 254, 1865 416
The Rogers 4-4-0, ca. 1865 422
Consolidation, 1866 427
The Baldwin Ten Wheeler, 1870 437
Summary 443
La Junta, a Cuban 4-2-2, 1843 449
The Stretch Planet, a Hinkley 4-4-0, 1845 454
Elephant, 1849: The First in the West 462
Sandusky, a Ten-Wheel Freight Engine, 1851 470
Lady Elgin and Two Lesser Sisters, 1852 476
Lisle, a Hinkley 0-4-0, 1853 483
Storey, a Western Mogul, 1869 486
Perkins Ten Wheeler, 1871 490
Some Four-Wheel Switchers of the 1870's 494
Marmora, an Eddy Clock, 1876 498
Forney Elevated Railway Locomotive, 1885 503
Appendix A:Biographical Sketches of Locomotive Designers
and Builders 537
Appendix B:Contract for the Mohawk and Hudson Railroad's
Experiment, 1831 547
Appendix C:Specification for the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad's
0-8-0, 1847 549
Appendix D:Specification of New York and Erie Engines,
1851, 551
Appendix E:Specification for the Western and Atlantic
Railroad's General, Rogers Locomotive Works, December 1855 555
Appendix F:Parts and Weight List for the Hinkley Locomotive
Works 4-4-0, 1865 556
Appendix G:Description of a Standard Grant Locomotive
Works 4-4-0, 1871 565
Appendix H:Chronology of the American Locomotive, 1795-
1875 573
In 1835, there were 175 steam locomotives in service in the United States. By 1900, that number had increased to 37,663. In this newly revised and expanded edition of his classic work, the renowned railroad historian John H. White, Jr., chronicles the explosive growth and development of the steam locomotive in America-from the first British imports to the New York Elevated locomotives of the 1880s-and adds more than ninety new pages of superb illustrations and text.
Beginning with the early era of locomotive design, White describes the background and methods of the first American builders, the special requirements of American railroads, construction materials, locomotive types, performance, and costs. He then turns to the development of individual components: boilers and running gears, headlights and cowcatchers, sandboxes, bells, and whistles. Throughout, remarkably detailed scale drawings-many reproduced from the original working drawings-illustrate design features and modifications.

Although there have been many romanticized treatments of the steam locomotive in America, this is the first comprehensive technical history of the early development of the machine. A major reason for this seemingly inexplicable gap has been the inaccessability of contemporary documents and drawings. Additionally, most of the surviving locomotives have been rebuilt so often that little of the original construction remains. Mr. White's task was therefore formidable, and he spent over seven years gathering information and illustrations for this volume. The result is a definitive reference work that will prove to be indispensable for anyone who wants to study the dimensions and evolution of the American locomotive.
The locomotives exported to this country in the 1830's were sophisticated mechanisms designed for use on carefully engineered and well-constructed railways. Conditions in America, including the shortage of investment capital, demanded a less sophisticated engine of greater power, durability, and stability. In the first part of his work, Mr. White traces the process of modification that produced the American locomotive. Ile is primarily concerned to describe the evolution of successful representative versions of this new type of locomotive, although he does not neglect some novel experiments that "failed" or engines that were developed for special purposes, such as for the coal industry. This general introduction contains material on the background and methods of the first American builders and evaluations of the efficiency of the major design innovations in terms of speed, traction, operating and maintenance costs, etc. Attention is also devoted to such neglected subjects as locomotive decoration and tenders.
Part II covers the evolution of locomotive component parts and their accessories. Each component part is discussed with reference to the various solutions tried by different designers, with the result that the reader receives a composite portrait of a widely scattered and individualistic industry. Wherever possible Mr. White identifies the origins of successful innovations, the most important of which are illustrated with line drawings and black-and-white photographs. Throughout the work, in fact, drawings and photographs are liberally used, and in some cases the author himself has reconstructed scale plans of engines for which no records have survived.
Case studies of over twenty of the more important locomotives of the period comprise Part HI. The author discusses representative locomotives from the early Stourbridge Lion, imported in 1827, to the later Baldwin Ten Wheeler, developed in 1870. Detailed appendices to the main text include biographies of many of the important locomotive designers and builders, examples of contracts and construction specifications, and a chronology of the American locomotive from 1795 to 1875. The volume concludes with an annotated bibliography.
The pioneer period of the American locomotive ended in about 1855. The machine had developed from a squat little boiler-on-wheels in 1830 to an elegant, well-proportioned mechanism. The pattern created by mid-century was so satisfactory that it underwent little change in the following twenty-five years. Much has already been published on this subject, but none of these accounts has, in my opinion, adequately treated the engineering history of the early American locomotive. The limited documentation makes this undertaking no simple task and it is difficult to offer more than conjecture or qualified guesses on many points.
The present study was written for those already acquainted with locomotive history and construction. It is hoped that the specialist will find new insights and materials not readily available elsewhere.  The general reader and those seeking an elementary treatise on the workings of the engine, the properties of steam, or a glossary of terms should consult the numerous books already published on the subject. These are available in most city or university libraries. I would recommend M. N. Forney's Catechism of the Locomotive for a sound introduction to the subject.
I have chosen to confine my remarks to the early period, with 1880 as the cutoff date. The second major phase of locomotive development, 1880-1910, when the machine underwent a dramatic growth in size, must be left for another time or another author. The final or modern era of development has been well covered by Alfred Bruce in his classic work The Steam Locomotive in America.

This book has three major sections. The first deals with the operating conditions that influenced the principal design concepts, the makers of locomotives, and the materials used. Part II covers the development of components. The third section is a series of case histories of representative American locomotives. Emphasis is on standard designs and practice.

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