100 Years of Steam Locomotives Collector's edition By Walter Lucas Hard Cover
100 Years of Steam Locomotives Collector's edition By Walter Lucas Hard Cover
100 Years of Steam Locomotives Collector's edition By Walter Lucas Hard Cover
100 Years of Steam Locomotives Collector's edition By Walter Lucas Hard Cover
100 Years of Steam Locomotives Collector's edition By Walter Lucas Hard Cover
100 Years of Steam Locomotives Collector's edition By Walter Lucas Hard Cover
100 Years of Steam Locomotives Collector's edition By Walter Lucas Hard Cover

100 Years of Steam Locomotives Collector's edition By Walter Lucas Hard Cover

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100 Years of Steam Locomotives Collector's edition By Walter Lucas Hard Cover
100 Years of Steam Locomotives Collector's edition By Walter A Lucas
277 Pages
Hard Cover.
Copyright 1957, 1981  
Simmons-Boardman Publishing.  

Diagram of a 4-6-4 or Hudson type passenger locomotive with principal parts numbered  VIII
Names of principal parts of a steam locomotive  IX
Steam Locomotive Classification System  X
0-4-0 TYPE
Buffalo Furnace saddle tank switching No. 1, 1895  1-2
Andrews Steel saddle tank switching No. 2, built previous to 19122-3
Pennsylvania switching No. 913, Class A-5s, 1917  4
0-6-0 TYPE
St. Louis, Chicago & St. Paul switching No. 15, 1893  5
Louisville & Jeffersonville Bridge switching No. 1, 1895  6
New York Central & Hudson River switching No. 547, 1911 7
Southern switching No. 1728, 1911  8
Illinois Central switching No. 218, 1912  9
Philadelphia & Reading switching No. 1466, Class B-9b, 1917 10
Chicago Junction switching No. 221, 1918  11
Pennsylvania switching No. 4179, Class B-6sb, 1924  12
0-8-0 TYPE
Havana Railroad coal-burning, flexible-beam freight No. 34, 1859  13
Ashland Coal & Iron switching No. 13, 1910  14
Toledo & Ohio Central switching No. 9543, 1918  15
Pennsylvania switching No. 6556, Class C-1, limited cut-off, 192516
Missouri-Kansas-Texas switching No. 101, 1925  17-18
Indiana Harbor Belt three-cylinder switching No. 102, 1927 18-19
0-10-0 TYPE
New York Central Lines switching No. 4590, Class M-1-B, 1907  20
0-4-4 TYPE
American Fork Railroad No. 1, "Onward", 1872  21
Mason No. 1876, 1876  21
Brooklyn Elevated compound Forney type No. 116, 1893  22
0-6-6-0 TYPE
Baltimore & Ohio Mallet articulated compound No. 2400, 1904 23-24
Canadian Pacific simple articulated freight No. 1955, 1911   24-25
0-8-8-0 TYPE
Delaware & Hudson Mallet articulated compound No. 1608, 1911  25-26
2-6-0 TYPE
New York & Oswego Midland freight No. 33, 1871  27-28
Delaware, Lackawanna & Western freight No. 16, 1892 28
Quincy & Torch Lake freight No. 1, 1894  29-30
Missouri, Kansas & Texas compound freight No. 263, 1895  30-31
New York Central & Hudson River freight No. 798, Class P, 1899.32
2-8-0 TYPE
Lehigh Valley freight No. 310, "United States," 1876  33.34
Great Northern tandem compound freight No. 515, 1893  35-36
New York, New Haven & Hartford freight No. 278, 1895 36-37
Lehigh Valley compound No. 681, 1898  38
Pennsylvania freight No. 5, Class H-6, 1899 39
Illinois Central freight No. 639, 1899  40
Lehigh & New England freight No. 32, 1911 41
Wheeling & Lake Erie freight No. 2401, 1913  42
Lake Superior & Ishpeming freight No. 19, 1916 43
2-10-0 TYPE
Minneapolis, St. Paul & Sault Ste. Marie freight No. 600, 190044-45
Atchison, Topeka S. Santa Fe tandem compound freight No. 940,
1903  45-46
Pennsylvania freight No. 790, Class I.1s, 1916  47
Canadian Pacific freight No. 5759, Class R-3b, 1917 48
2-4-2 TYPE
Chicago, Burlington & Quincy passenger No. 590, 1895 49
Compound passenger, "Columbia", 1893  50-51
2-4-2-T TYPE
Ray & Gila Valley four-coupled double-ender side-tank No. 1151-52
2-6-2 TYPE
Cincinnati, Lebanon & Northern double-ender No. 9, 1893  53-54
Chicago, Burlington & Quincy freight No. 1701, 190054-55
Chicago, Milwaukee & Puget Sound freight No. 2134, 190955
2-8-2 TYPE
Oregon Railroad & Navigation freight No. 440, 1910  57-58
Chesapeake & Ohio freight No. 800, 1911 58-59
Baltimore & Ohio freight No. 4008, 1911 60
Reading freight No. 1700, 1912  61-62
Northern Pacific freight No. 1743, 1913     62-63
Pennsylvania Lines freight No. 7345, Class 1-1s, 1917 64
Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe freight No. 3160, 1917        65-66
Baltimore & Ohio freight No. 4500, 1918  66-67
Canadian National freight No. 3533, Class S-2a, 1923 68-69
Lehigh Valley freight No. 485, Class N-5, 1924  69-70
New York Central freight No. 340, Class H-10b, 1924  71-72
Georgia Northern freight No. 105, 1929  72.73
2-10-2 TYPE
Chicago, Burlington & Quincy freight No. 6000, 1912 74.75
New York, Ontario & Western freight No. 353, 1915 75-76
Erie freight No. 4000, 1916     77-78
Union Pacific freight No. 5009, 1917  78-79
Southern freight No. 5200, 1918  80.81
Baltimore & Ohio freight No. 6100, Class S-1, 1923  81-82
Canadian National freight No. 4100, Class T-2a, 1924  83-84
Reading freight No. 3000, Class K-1sa, 1927 84-85
2-8-4 TYPE
Boston & Albany freight No. 1400, 1926 86-87
Erie freight No. 3305, Class S-1, 1927 87-88
Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe freight No. 4103, 1927 89
New York, Chicago & St. Louis freight No. 703, Class S, 1934 89-90
New York Central System freight No. 9401, Class A-2-a, 1948  91
2-10-4 TYPE
Texas & Pacific freight No. 600, 1925     92-93
Chicago, Burlington & Quincy freight No. 6312, Class M-4, 1927 93-94
Kansas City Southern freight No. 905, Class 1, 1937   95-96
Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe freight No. 5004, Class 5001, 1937 96-97
2-8-8-0 TYPE
Great Northern Mallet articulated compound freight No. 2009, 191298
2-6-6-2 TYPE
Great Northern Mallet compound freight No. 1800, 1906 99-100
Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Mallet articulated compound freight
No. 1171, 1910  101
Wheeling & Lake Erie Mallet articulated compound freight
No. 8009, 1919  102.103
2-8-8-2 TYPE
Duluth, Missabe & Northern Mallet articulated freight No. 205, 1910  103-104
Nashville, Chattanooga & St. Louis Mallet articulated compound freight No. 902, 1915 105.106
Norfolk & Western Mallet articulated compound freight No. 1700, 1918  106-107
Clinchfield Mallet articulated compound freight No. 731, 1919 108-109
Denver & Rio Grande Western single-expansion articulated freight No. 3608, Class L-125, 1927 109-110
2-1 0-1 0-2 TYPE
Virginian Mallet articulated compound freight No. 802, 1918111
2-6-6-4 TYPE
Norfolk & Western single-expansion articulated freight No. 1200,
Class A, 1936  112-113
2-8-8-4 TYPE
Northern Pacific single-expansion articulated freight No. 5000,
Class Z-5, 1928  114
Southern Pacific single-expansion articulated freight and passenger No. 4102, Class AC-4, 1928 (Also known as 4-8-8-2)  115
Southern Pacific single-expansion articulated No. 3800, Class
AC-9, 1939  116-117
Duluth, Missabe & Iron Range single-expansion articulated
freight No. 231, Class M-4, 1943  118-119
Baltimore & Ohio single-expansion articulated No. 7602, Class
EM-1, 1944  120
2-6-6-6 TYPE
Chesapeake & Ohio Allegheny locomotive No. 1601 (same
design as No. 1610)  121
Chesapeake & Ohio single-expansion articulated freight No. 1610, 1942  122-123
4-4-0 TYPE
New Haven, New London & Stonington "Madison"  124
Nashville & Chattanooga "Thomas Rogers", 1856  124
New Orleans, Jackson & Great Northern wood-burning passenger
Vulcan, 1858  125
Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific passenger No. 109, "America",
1867  126-127
Camden & Atlantic passenger No. 8, 1871 127
New York Central & Hudson River passenger No. 82, 1877 128-131
New York Central & Hudson River passenger No. 897, 1891  129
Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago & St. Louis No. 100 passenger,
Class Y, 1893  130-131
Illinois Central passenger No. 961, 1896           131-132
Lake Shore & Michigan Southern passenger No. 599, Class
11-A, 1893 133
Union Pacific passenger No. 785, 1888 134
Northwestern Pacific passenger No. 51, 1914 134
New York, New Haven & Hartford passenger No. 240, 1893 135
Erie Engineers passenger No. 499, Class D-13, 1893 136
Delaware, Lackawanna & Western passenger No. 160, 1893 137
Chicago & Grand Trunk passenger No. 155, Class B, 1893138
New York Central & Hudson River passenger No. 999, Class N,
1893  139
Pennsylvania No. 1651, passenger, Class P, 1894 140.141
Boston & Maine passenger No. 281, 1895 142
Seaboard Air Line passenger No. 546, 1895 143
Atlanta, Birmingham & Atlantic passenger No. 34, 1910 144
Reading passenger No. 419, 1914 145-146
4-6-0 TYPE
Buffalo & Susquehanna freight No. 109, 1894 146-147
South Carolina Railroad wood-burning freight "W. C. Gatewood",
1859  148
Philadelphia & Reading freight No. 408, 1877  149
Lake Shore & Michigan Southern passenger No. 564, 1891 150
Everett & Monte Cristo freight No. 3, 1892 151
Terre Haute & Indianapolis passenger No. 34, 1893 152
Delaware, Lackawanna & Western compound No. 17, 1893 153
Richmond compound freight No. 2421, 1894 154-155
Buffalo, Rochester & Pittsburgh passenger No. 194, 1898 155-156
Terre Haute & Peoria Division of the Vandalia Lines compound
freight No. 259, 1895  157
Southern Pacific passenger No. 1818, 1895  158
Southern passenger No. 327, 1897  159
Great Northern passenger No. 150, 1898 160
Pennsylvania passenger No. 863, Class G-4, 1899  161
Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe tandem compound passenger No
691, 1899  162
Pennsylvania passenger Class G-5s, 1923 163-164
4-8-0 TYPE
Central Pacific freight No. 229, 1882 165
Delaware, Lackawanna & Western freight No. 808, 1899 166-167
Illinois Central freight No. 640, 1899 167.168
4-2-2 TYPE
Philadelphia & Reading passenger No. 507, 1880  169.171
4-4-2 TYPE
Lehigh Valley passenger No. 668, 1896 172.173
Atlantic City (P.&R.) compound passenger No. 1027, 1896 173.174
Pennsylvania passenger No. 820, Class E-1, 1899 175
Chicago, Burlington & Quincy passenger No. 1591, 1899 176
Chicago & Northwestern passenger No. 1015, 1900 177
Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific four-cylinder passenger No
1040, 1909  178-179
Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe four-cylinder compound passenger No. 1485, 1910  179-180
Pennsylvania passenger No. 5075, Class E-6, 1910 181
Chicago, Milwaukee, St. Paul & Pacific No. 1, streamlined "Hiawatha", 1935  182.183
4-6-2 TYPE
Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul compound passenger No. 830,
1893  184-185
Missouri Pacific passenger No. 1118, 1902 185-186
Michigan Central No. 499, 1904 187
Alco experimental passenger No. 50000, 1910  188-189
Delaware, Lackawanna & Western locomotive No. 1106, 1912 189-190
Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe four-cylinder balanced compound
passenger No. 1310, 1911  191-192
Richmond, Fredericksburg & Potomac passenger No. 2, 1915 192-193
Nashville, Chattanooga & St. Louis passenger No. 330, 1912 194
Chesapeake & Ohio passenger No. 182, 1914 195
Pennsylvania passenger No. 1737, Class K-4s, 1914 196
Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe passenger No. 3600, 1915 197
Atlantic Coast Line passenger No. 494, 1919  198.199
Erie passenger No. 2925, Class K-5, 1919 199-200
Pennsylvania passenger No. 5698, Class K-5, 1929 201
Canadian Pacific passenger No. 2322, Class G-3c, 1923 202-203
4-8-2 TYPE
Chesapeake & Ohio passenger No. 316, 1911 203-204
Norfolk & Western passenger No. 102, 1916  205-206
Chesapeake & Ohio passenger No. 133, 1918  206-207
Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific passenger No. 4002, 1920 208-209
Union Pacific passenger No. 7000, 1922 209-210
New York Central freight No. 2743, Class L-2a, 1926 211-212
Pennsylvania freight No. 6800, Class M-1, 1926  212-213
Texas & Pacific passenger No. 909, Class M-2, 1928.  214-215
Wabash freight No. 2806, Class M-1, 1930 215-216
New York Central freight and passenger No. 3113, Class L-4a, 1943    217-218
4-10-2 TYPE
Southern Pacific three-cylinder passenger and freight No. 5043,
Class SP-3, 1927  218-219
4-12-2 TYPE
Union Pacific three-cylinder freight No. 9000, 1926 220-221
4-4-4 TYPE
Reading passenger No. 110, 1915  222-223
Canadian Pacific passenger No. 3001, Class F-2a, 1936 223-224
4-6-4 TYPE
Hudson type passenger locomotive with principal parts numberediii
Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe passenger No. 3465, Class 3460,
1937   225.226 Chicago & North Western passenger No. 4002, Class E-4, 1938 226-227 Chesapeake & Ohio passenger No. 305, Class L-2, 1942  228-229
4-6-4-1 TYPE
Canadian Pacific double-ender suburban passenger No. 1992,
1910  230
Grand Trunk passenger No. 1544, 1914 231-232
4-6-6-T TYPE
Boston & Albany double-ender tank No. 400, Class D-1, 1928 232-233
4-8-4 TYPE
Northern Pacific passenger No. 2607, 1926 234-235
Canadian Pacific passenger No. 3100, Class K-1, 1928  235-236
Denver & Rio Grande Western passenger No. 1702, Class M-64,
1929  237-238
Delaware, Lackawanna & Western freight No. 1603, Class Q-2,
1929  238-239
Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe passenger No. 3761, 1929
Chicago & North Western passenger and freight No. 3006,
Class H, 1929  241-242
Great Northern passenger No. 2577, Class S-2, 1930 243-244
St. Louis Southwestern oil-burning freight No. 802, Class L-1,
1930  244-245
Wabash freight No. 2910, Class 0-1, 1930  246-247
Lehigh Valley passenger and freight No. 5126, Class T-3, 1934 247-248
Chesapeake & Ohio passenger No. 600, Class J-3, 1935
Southern Pacific passenger No. 4410, Class GS-2, 1936 250-251
Union Pacific passenger No. 806, 1937 252-253
Minneapolis, St. Paul & Sault Ste. Marie, passenger and
freight No. 5000, Class 0-20, 1938  253-254
Atlantic Coast Line passenger No. 1805, Class R-1, 1938 255-256
Chicago, Milwaukee, St. Paul & Pacific freight No. 232, Class
S-2, 1940  256-257
Norfolk & Western passenger No. 600, Class 1, 1941 258
Delaware & Hudson passenger and freight No. 308, Class K-62,
1943  259
Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific passenger and freight No. 5100,
Class R-67, 1944  260-261
New York Central passenger No. 6008, Class S-1 a, 1946  261-263
4-4-4-4 TYPE
Pennsylvania 4-cylinder, passenger No. 6110, Class T-1, 1942 264-265
4-6-6-4 TYPE
Union Pacific single-expansion articulated freight No. 3900,
August 1931  266-267
Western Maryland single-expansion articulated freight No
1203, 1940  268-269
4-8-8-2 TYPE (See 2-8-8-4 Type)
4-8-8-4 TYPE
Union Pacific single-expansion articulated freight locomotive No. 4002, built b, y the American Locomotive Company, Schenectady Works, September 1941   270.271
Western Maryland Shay-geared No. 6, 1945  272-273
Tioga Lumber Company Shay-geared No. 2  274
New York Central & Hudson River passenger tender, 1877  275
Diagram of a locomotive tender with principal parts numbered276
Names of principal parts of a locomotive tender  276
Union Pacific cylindrical or Vanderbilt type tender for locomotive No. 806, 1937  276
Norfolk & Western rectangular tender, built by the railroad in
Roanoke Shops  276
Baltimore & Ohio locomotive cab  277
Baldwin Locomotive Works cab  278
Brooks Locomotive Works cab       278

Foreword --ONE hundred Years of Steam Locomotives can be termed a continuation of the Popular Picture and Plan Book of Railroad Cars and Locomotives published in 1951 and the Pocket Guide to American Locomotives published in 1953. These hooks proved to be very popular, especially with model builders and railroad hobbyists in general.
The growing demand for further information, diagrams, and illustrations of the rapidly disappearing steam locomotive prompted the publication of this volume which includes many of the foregoing and also those of other bygone eras, As in the previous books, the illustrations have been taken from past issues of the Locomotive Cyclopedia and its predecessors,namely the Locomotive Dictionary. Modern Locomotives, Recent Locomotives, Railway Aye, and The Railroad Gazette, all publications of Simmons-Boardman, plus a few similar examples of locomotives obtained from other sources.
Primarily intended for use of steam railroad model builders, the illustrations were selected for their clarity in reproduction so that anyone familiar with the use of a simple scale can readily recreate a desired type of locomotive in miniature. in nearly all examples the elevation drawings have sufficient dimensions that can be measured and divided into their proper scale components. This can conveniently be done by marking along the edge of a straight piece of paper the desired dimension taken from the elevation drawing and dividing the line into the number of feet shown. By subdividing the end portion into 12 equal parts a reasonably good scale will result, enabling the model builder to lay his improvised scale upon any undimensioned part of the drawing and obtain a direct reading in feet and inches. If the elevation drawings, cross sections, and photographs are carefully followed, a capable model builder should be able to reproduce a miniature locomotive closely resembling the original illustrated in the book and with better results than is generally found in amateur model-building work. The various types of steam locomotives are grouped according to wheel arrangement, beginning with the supplest in the Whyte system, and the different individual locomotives under a particular wheel arrangement category are shown in chronological order. Numerous model builders have requested plans of the 4-4-0 type of locomotive which for many years was the standard type used in both freight and passenger service in the United States. It is known as the Eight-Wheel or American type and we have included a variety of them dating from 1856 to 1914. Steam locomotive construction for domestic use came to a complete halt in 1949 because of the replacement of steam motive power by diesel-electric locomotives. Most of the modern types of steam locomotives still in use are modifications of older types with the substitution of four-wheel for two-wheel trailing trucks. In early types, the firebox was suspended between the engine frames, and, being limited by the frame clearances, necessarily was narrow and practically governed the grate area obtainable. About the year 1881 some locomotives were built having the fire-box foundation rings raised to the top of the frames and widened to occupy the entire width between the driving wheels. This made possible a substantial increase of grate area and heating surface which added to the steaming capacity of the boiler. The Wootten type boiler with a large grate area for burning anthracite was introduced on the Philadelphia & Reading in 1878. At the present time little anthracite is burned in locomotives.
About the year 1893 a locomotive was built with the firebox in back of the rear driving wheels and widened to extend the full width of the locomotive, the resulting increase in firebox length being accommodated by carrying the rear end of the locomotive frame 011 a trailing truck having small-diameter wheels entirely below the foundation ring. With this type of construction, firebox dimensions were Iimited only by the railway line clearances and by the ability of the fireman to shovel coal; the tubes were lengthened, greater heating surfaces were obtained, and the size of locomotives was greatly increased. A further advance took place in 1925 when the four-wheel trailing truck was developed.
In later years, the tendency was to obtain greater capacity and efficiency by refinement in design and by the perfecting of such appliances as superheaters, mechanical stokers, and feedwater heaters. Improved combustion, a better proportioning of the boiler to steam demands, higher steam pressure and greater superheat, together with better locomotive utilization and train operation, coupled with longer runs, brought about a marked reduction in the average amount of coal consumed per 1.000 gross ton-miles.
A secondary engine-known as a "booster"-was developed for use on locomotives having two- or four-wheel trailing trucks. The booster was applied to a truck axle and provided additional tractive force that assisted the main engines in starting heavy trains and when traveling up steep grades.
The slide valve type of engine was in common use until about 1900 when the piston valve was introduced in locomotive design. The piston valve is the one now in general use. In American practice, steam locomotives are invariably provided with single-expansion cylinders, the only exception being some Mallet articulated compounds in slow, heavy freight service. Other classes of compound locomotives were extensively used 55 years ago. These were of the two-cylinder, cross-compound variety and four-cylinder compounds having cylinders superimposed or arranged in tandem.
Many different types of locomotives have been built but several which proved to be the most efficient became standard in America. These types, varying on the different railroads in details of construction, are of three general classes: freight, passenger, and switching locomotives.
Locomotive Inventory
The rapid decline in the total number of steam locomotives in the United States is shown by the following figures. At the beginning of the year 1956, there were 6,266 steam locomotives owned by all railroads and by the first of April 1957 this had dwindled to only 3,437 in service. Likewise in Canada the total number of steam locomotives was 3.225 at the beginning of 1956 and this has dropped considerably in the meantime.
Freight Locomotives
Freight locomotives generally have a two-wheel leading truck to help support the front end and guide the locomotive around curves. The truck is located under the forward end of the boiler. Driving wheels, formerly of a relatively small diameter, usually 63 inches or under are now larger. The rear end of the boiler and the firebox are either supported on a separate rear frame or cradle carried on a trailing truck, or, when without trailing trucks, on an extension of the frames. The large proportion of the total weight resting on the driving wheels provides the adhesion necessary for the large tractive force required to haul today's long, heavy trains. Most modern freight locomotives, owing to increased speeds, have driving wheels of 69 inches or 70 inches diameter.
Locomotives commonly included in this class, that were in general use in North America, are Consolidation-2-8-0; Mikado-2-8-2; Berkshire-2-8-4; Decapod-2-10-0 ; Santa Fe-2-10-2 ; Texas-2-10-4; and various articulated types. Pacific type-4-6-2; Mountain type-4-8-2, and the 4-8-4 type, all originally designed for passenger service, were also used for fast freight. The 2-6-0-Mogul type locomotive was introduced in 1863 following the invention of the Bissell truck. This wheel arrangement became quite popular but very few locomotives of the Mogul type are now in use. The 2-6-2-Prairie type locomotive was first built in 1900 for freight service on the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy. It was simply a Mogul with a pair of trailing wheels added under the firebox. This arrangemnet permitted the use of a wide firebox having a relatively short length but gave a large grate area. It permitted easy hand firing which was not possible with the extremely long firebox of the earlier narrow type.
The 2-8-0-Consolidation type is the logical step after the Mogul type, having an additional pair of driving wheels and consequently greater hauling capacity. It was first constructed in 1866 for the Lehigh Valley and is still used on some railroads in light freight service.
The 2-8-2-Mikado type was developed from the 2-80 type, having the same number of driving wheels and, in addition, a two-wheel trailing truck under the firebox. This arrangement gives the advantages of a wide firebox in conjunction with a large boiler the resulting high steaming capacity permits a more sustained use in heavy service. This type was first built in 1897 for use in Japan, from whence the name Mikado was derived.
The 2-8-4-Berkshire type was an evolution from the 2-8-2 type, having the same number of driving wheels but with a four-wheel instead of a two-wheel trailing truck. This wheel arrangement permitted a better boiler design with a larger grate area. It was used first on the Boston & Albany in 1925, having been designed by the Lima Locomotive Works, Inc.
The 2-10-0-Decapod type locomotive, first built by Norris Locomotive Works for the Lehigh Valley in 1867, is similar to the Consolidation type except that it has an additional pair of driving wheels. This permitted the use of a still larger boiler and provided greater adhesion and tractive force. This type is well adapted for heavy drag freight service and is extensively employed on the Pennsylvania Railroad.
The 2-10-2-Santa Fe type was a step forward from the 2-10-0 type in the direction of heavier motive power. It has a pair of trailing wheels which provide for a greater length of boiler and firebox, with the result that greater steam capacity and tractive force is obtained. This type was first built in 1903 for use on the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe and for that reason was designated the "Santa Fe" type.
The 2-10-4-Texas type was an evolution from the 2-10-2 type, having the same number of driving wheels but with a four-wheel instead of a two-wheel trailing truck. This wheel arrangement permitted a better boiler design with a larger grate area. It was first used on the Texas & Pacific in 1925, and like the 2-8-4 type was designed by the Lima Locomotive Works, Inc.
Articulated Locomotives
Articulated locomotives were built as early as 1832. The Mallet articulated compound locomotive, introduced in Europe in 1887, was not built in the United States until 1904-an 0-6-6-0 type used in heavy freight service on the Baltimore & Ohio. This type has two sets of frames-rear frames held rigidly in alignment with the boiler, and front frames connected to the rear unit by a pivot joint. Each set of frames is carried on a separate group of driving wheels-four, six, eight, or ten, depending on the size of the locomotive. Usually the front frames support the forward end of the boiler on sliding frame bearings that allow the leading unit to swivel radially about the pivot connection, giving the effect of a truck. These features make possible a locomotive with a short rigid wheelbase and moderate wheel loads but having large tractive force. Some articulated locomotives have been built with the leading unit as well as the rear unit rigidly secured to the boiler, the swiveling effect being obtained by means of an articulated or flexible boiler.
When the engine is of the compound design - the real Mallet arrangement-the rear group of wheels is driven by high-pressure cylinders mounted on the rear frames at the leading drivers. The front group is driven by low-pressure cylinders mounted at the leading drivers of the group. Steam from the boiler enters the high-pressure cylinders, is exhausted through a flexible pipe connection to the low-pressure cylinders, where it further expands and then is exhausted to the front end and thence to the atmosphere. This system of cormpounding was first proposed by Anatole Mallet, a native of Switzerland, from whom this type of locomotive takes its name.
A few articulated compound locomotives having three pairs of cylinders and three groups of drivers-known as Triplex-have been built for very heavy freight service. The third group of drivers was located tinder the tender two cylinders were high-pressure and four were low-pressure, the high-pressure pair driving the middle group of wheels. The right high-pressure cylinder exhausted to the front pair of low-pressure cylinders; the left high-pressure cylinder supplied the rear pair of low-pressure cylinders in a similar manner. This arrangement did not prove entirely satisfactory because the extremely high steam capacity needed was not easily obtained.
Articulated locomotives now in service on American roads are invariably of the single-expansion type, the compound features having been done away with and four high-pressure cylinders employed. This arrangement permits operation at higher speeds and reduces the cost of maintenance. A number of roads have converted existing articulated locomotives from compounds to single-expansions. While most single-expansion articulated locomotives are used in freight service, some are used in heavy passenger service where there are heavy grades.
Passenger Locomotives
Passenger locomotives, or those provided with a four-wheel leading truck to give greater security in rounding curves at the high speeds attained in modern passenger service, have two, three, or four pairs of driving wheels of large diameter, generally 69 inches to 84 inches. On many locomotives of earlier construction the rear frame supporting the firebox was carried on a two-wheel trailing truck, although later ones were built with four-wheel trailing trucks. The types included in this class used on American railroads are: Atlantic-4-4-2, Hudson-4-6-4, Pacific-4-6-2, Mountain-4-8-2, and Northern -4-8-4 type. The last three types are also often used for fast freight service. Ten-wheel-4-6-0 and some eight-wheel or American-4-4-0 passenger locomotives are also still in use on a few railroads. Other types, introduced in 1925 and 1926, were the 4-10-2 and 4-12-2 types, for both freight and passenger service.
The 4-6-0 type was introduced on the Philadelphia & Reading in 1847 and the first 4-8-0 type on the Baltimore & Ohio in 1856. This 4-8-0 type was intended for passenger service but subsequently nearly all locomotives with this wheel arrangement were built to haul freight trains.
A few passenger locomotives having a single pair of driving wheels, called the Bicycle type, have been built, but as they were generally lacking in tractive force they were rebuilt into other types where they could perform more satisfactorily.
The 44-2-Atlantic type locomotive first appeared in 1888 when one was built to George S. Strong s patents and used in high-speed passenger service. As developed later, this type was a modification of the 2-42-Columbia type built in 1893 and the earlier eightwheel-4-4-0-locomotive, first built in 1837. The latter for many years was standard on American railroads for both passenger and freight service and thus became known as the American type. The term "Atlantic" was derived from the fact that the 4-4-2 type was extensively used on the Atlantic Coast Line in 1895.
A further development produced the 4-4-4-Reading
type of which a few were built in 1915 for the railroad bearing that name. This type never came into general use.
The 4-6-2-Pacific type locomotive is a development from the 4-4-2 type, simply having three pairs of driving wheels instead of two, and consequently a larger boiler and firebox with the attendant increase in steam capacity and higher tractive force. A locomotive with this wheel arrangement was built by George S. Strong in 1886 and used for a while on the Lehigh Valley. The next one was in 1901 by Baldwin Locomotive Works for some locomotives for New Zealand, followed in 1902 by some built by American Locomotive Company for the Missouri Pacific, hence the name. This type was used extensively in passenger service and many times in fast freight service.
The 4-6-4-Baltic, or Hudson, type was an evolution from the 4-6-2 type. It was first built in France in 1913 and introduced into the United States on the New York Central in 1927, having been designed by the American Locomotive Company.
The 4-8-2-Mountain type locomotive was first built in the year 1911 and used in passenger service on the mountain grades of the Clifton Forge Division of the Chesapeake & Ohio, hence the name. It was designed to provide a greater tractive force than could be obtained from the Pacific type and is similar to it but has an additional pair of driving wheels. The use of a very large boiler and firebox provides a high steam capacity.
The 4-8-4-Northern type, an enlargement of the Mountain type, was first constructed in 1926 for the Northern Pacific, from which it takes its name. It was closely followed in 1927 by others for the Canadian National, Grand Trunk Western. Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe, and Delaware, Lackawanna & Wester, Locomotives of this type have since been built for many other roads for use in both passenger and fast freight service.
Switching Locomotives
Switching locomotives were designed for varied service that required a machine so proportioned that it would readily pass over the relatively sharp curves encountered in railroad yards. would start in either direction easily and quickly, and possess ample tractive force to move heavy loads. To accomplish this the modern switching locomotive had its entire weight resting on the axles of driving wheels of comparatively small diameter. Thus it secured the maximum amount of adhesion and tractive force from a given total weight of locomotive. The cylinder area and steam capacity was as great as consistent with the size of the locomotive. The wheel arrangement of this class of motive power consisted of six or eight drivers, classified as 0-6-0 and 0-8-0 types respectively. Some very heavy units having ten drivers-0-10-0 or 0-10-2-have been built. For light service, chiefly in the yards of industrial works, switchers having only four drivers, 0-4-0, were used.
The switching locomotives generally used in railroad yards were equipped with 8-wheel tenders. Sometimes these were made with a sloping rear end so that the engineman could have an unobstructed view to the rear as well as ahead of the engine. Many of the smaller switchers, 0-4-0, had fixed tenders built on the back of the cab. Sometimes this tender rested on an extension of the frames but more often

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